The Nazi State: from 1933 onwards

  • Hitler established dictatorship in Germany in March 1933, banned all political parties.
  • He had complete authority over economy, army, media and judiciary.
  • Hitler snatched the autonomy of the Federal States of Germany by abolishing all provincial Diets.
  • All provinces were made administrative districts of the empire.
  • Hitler banned all the political parties except the National Socialists.
  • He created secret police to control society.
  • Hitler became the Supreme Commander of the Army after dismissing the Commander-in-Chief of the German army General Fritch and Field Marshall Blomberg.
  • He started Nazification of Germany by controlling the education system.
  • He banned all trade unions and their political activities were banned.
  • Hitler introduced one single labour organisation “German Labour Front”.
  • Media in Germany was controlled by the Ministry of Propaganda under Joseph Goebbels.
  • Ministry of Propaganda regulated Radio, newspapers, magazines, books, theatre, film, music and art.
  • Initially, Hitler had cordial relations with the Catholic Churches.
  • Hitler promised his non-interference in the Roman Catholic affairs.
  • Later, Hitler’s government banned the Catholic Youth League and closed down Catholic schools, forced the Pope Pius XI to issue an Encyclical, condemning Hitler.
  • Germans were divided into different Protestant groups.
  • Hitler attempted to organise them under one Nazi Bishop, protested by Martin Niemoller with other Christians.
  • Martin along with his 800 followers was killed in concentration camps.
  • Hitler told that German problem could be solved only by eliminating Jews.
  • Jews were subjected to step-by-step persecution in Nazi rule.
  • Marriages between Jews and Germans were forbidden.
  • Jews were charred in gas chambers or killed in mass shooting.    
  • One of the causes of Hitler’s rise to power was the breakdown of the economic system.
  • Hitler was having two aims of removing unemployment and making Germany an Autarky.
  • He passed nutrition Estate Law in 1933.
  • Germans appreciated Hitler’s practical approach towards the problems.
  • He successfully solved the unemployment problem by introducing work schemes and increased arms production.
  • He gained the support of the working class by issuing them subsidized holidays, cheaper tickets to theatre and music concerts.
  • He crushed communists in Germany and banned all trade unions and workers’ strikes.
  • Hitler’s successful foreign policy won the confidence of the army and the German people alike.

 

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