Workers' Movements

  •  Industrial Revolution gave birth to new ideologies Socialism.
  • Socialists tried to remove poverty and sufferings of the working class by the distribution of wealth.
  •  Karl Marx enunciated the theory of dialectic materialism and theory of value.
  •  Socialism got reduced after the defeat of European Revolution of 1849.
  • The Socialists preached revolutionary ideals but Lassef believed in National Socialism.
  • The two Socialist factions worked out a joint programme named Gotha Programme in 1875, led to the formation of the united Social Democratic Party.
  • Bismarck made laws on various insurances and reduced the working hours of workers.
  • The strength of the Socialists lay in their ideas.
  • Germany lost the First World War.
  • In the election of 1919, Social Democrats gained majority.
  • Friedrich Ebert became the President of Republic.
  •  In 1919, Communists led by Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg occupied large parts of Germany.
  • The Government managed to defeat the Communists and their leaders were executed.
  •  During the later period, there were frequent clashes between the Nazis and the Communists.
  •  When in power, Hitler took stern action against the trade unions and the Communists.
  • The word “Suffragette” was used to describe women campaigning for the right to vote.
  •  The movement for women’s vote accelerated when The Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) was founded by Emmeline Pankhurst and six others including her daughters Cristobel and Sylvia in 1903.
  • Norah Dacre Fox was appointed as General Secretary by WSPU in 1913.
  • In 1905, the group convinced Bamford Slack to introduce women’s suffrage bill.
  •  In 1906, series of demonstrations led to many arrests and imprisonments.
  •  The British government refused to support women’s suffrage.
  •  In 1906, Liberal government under Herbert Henry Asquith came to power in 1908, did not support the WSPU.
  •  There was a Sunday March in Hyde Park in June, 1908.
  • Without any support, the Suffragettes became more militants.
  • Pankhurst and others started supporting Britain’s war efforts.
  • In February 1918, the government gave voting rights to women Over 30 years old, 8.5 million women became entitled to vote in 1918 elections.
  • In 1928 law gave voting rights to women over the age of 21.

 

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