State, Government, Society and Association
- State and government are the main objects of study in politics. Each human being is born in a society, lives as a citizen of state and is governed by the government of the state.
- State is a large community of persons, occupying a definite territory and exercising sovereign power through its government over all the persons in its territory, without any external control.
- There is no definite limit for the number of the population essential for a state. However it is recognised that the population should be neither disproportionately large nor very small.
- The people of a state are the citizens of the state. The citizens of another state also live on the territory of the state, they are called aliens.
- Government is an instrument or agency through which the will of the state is expressed, formulated and implemented.
- The three organs of the governmentcarry out its assigned functions and responsibilities. Sovereignty means supreme power of the state. State has the exclusive title and prerogative to exercise sovereignty over its people and territory.
- Internal sovereignty means the state exercises its supreme power to order and regulate the activities of all the people, groups and institutions within its territory. External sovereigntymeans the state is completely independent of the control of any external authority.
- Ancient Greek Philosophers like Plato and Aristotle made no distinction between state and society. 17th Century philosopher, John Locke recognized that there exists a distinction between state and society.State is the sovereign association of all people who live in the territory of the state.
- An association is a non- sovereign organisation of only some people which always works under the laws of the state. The chief characteristic of the state is permanence. It has never ending objectives, which it seeks to fulfill. The associations on the other hand are formed for the fulfillment of their limited objectives.
- State society and associations are simultaneously present and acting in our environment. We depend on these for satisfying our different needs. These are inter-related and interdependent human organisations.
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Which among the following is not an association?Marks:1
Senate of United States of America
Some of the examples of association are economic associations like trade unions, political associations like Arya Samaj, Sanathan Dharm Sabha or any political party or social service associations like Lions Club, Rotary Clubs etc.
Which British philosopher is pioneer to recognize the distinction between state and society?Marks:1
John Locke the 17th Century philosopher, recognized that there exists a distinction between state and society.
Which among the following is an permanent entity?Marks:1
State is a permanent entity, while the government in a state may change after every election. The State stays as long as it continues to enjoy its sovereignty. While the governments may witness rise and fall.
Which among the following is the basis on which state regulates the life of the people within its territory?Marks:1
Sovereignty provides the basis on which the state regulates all aspects or the life of the people who live on its territory.
The rule adjudication function was done by which organ of the government.Marks:1
Judiciary applies the laws to specific cases and settles the disputes. In other words it performs the rule adjudication functions.