International Relations: An Introduction
- In discipline of International relations we study interaction or relations among all the members of international community.
- The First World War began on 28 July 1914 when Austria-Hungary declared war against Serbia but it soon spread to all parts of Europe.
- The peace settlement after the First World War was done by the treaty of Versailles in 1919.
- Till 1919 there was no international organisation for maintaining international peace and security. The League of Nations was first international organisation that was established in 1919 for preserving peace.
- The inter war period relations among nations were conducted under the impact of the faulty peace settlement affected by treaty of Versailles. Italy too experienced the rise of fascism.
- In 1939 a bigger and more destructive Second World War broke out that lasted for six years. Nazism and fascism stood for aggressive nationalism, militarism, war, domination and expansionism.
- Germany, Italy, Japan, Rumania and some other states formed the Axis Powers and England, France, USA, China and later on USSR joined hands to constitute the Allied Powers in war.
- USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This brought the final end of Second World War.
- The emergence of Cold war led to the organisation of world into two competing and rival camps led by US and USSR.
- After the Second World War the weakened position of the European Imperial powers and it strengthened spirit of national self-determination and liberation among the colonies became instrumental in initiating a process of end of colonialism and imperialism in the world.
- United Nations charter laid down a collective security system as the new device of power management in international relations.
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When, The United Nations Organisation came into existence?Marks:1
24 October 1945
The United Nations Organisation came into existence on 24 October 1945. The UN assumed the responsibility to maintain international peace and security by promoting friendly cooperation among the member states.
With the Emergence of Cold war the world was divided between two competing camps led by.Marks:1
USA and USSR
The emergence of Cold war led to the organisation of two competing and rival camps in international relations by both the USA and the USSR.
On which cities of Japan, America used Atomic Bombs for the first and last time in Human history?Marks:1
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
During Second World War, for defeating Japan the USA used atomic bombs on 6th and 9th August 1945 on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these developments?Marks:6
- The Cold War did not eliminate rivalries between the two alliances, mutual suspicions led them to arm themselves to the teeth and to constantly prepare for war.
- Huge stocks of arms were considered necessary to prevent wars from taking place. Because of these reasons Cold War produced an arms race.
- The two sides understood that war might occur in spite of restraint. Either side might miscalculate the number of weapons in the possession of the other side.
- They might misunderstand the intentions of the other side. Besides, what if there was a nuclear accident? What would happen if someone fired off a nuclear weapon by mistake or if a soldier mischievously shot off a weapon deliberately to start a war? What if an accident occurred with a nuclear weapon? How would the leaders of that country know it was an accident and not an act of sabotage by the enemy or that a missile had not landed from the other side?
- In time, therefore, the US and USSR decided to collaborate in limiting or eliminating certain kinds of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons.
What are the causes of collapse of inter war (1918-1939) International system and outbreak of Second World War?Marks:6
The causes of collapse of inter war International system are: -
- The treaty of Versailles imposed harsh conditions on Germany. That crippled Germany economically, politically, territorially and militarily. That paved the way for rise of Nazism. Nazism which rested on the foundations of aggressive nationalism, racialism, militarism and Hitlerism pushed Germany towards a new war with France and Britain.
- Italy too experienced the rise of Fascism under the leadership of Mussolini, which again stood for aggressive and narrow nationalism, militarism, war and domination.
- Around this time Japan too had become very ambitious. It now wanted to become dominant power in Asia.
- The League of Nations was born with several limitations. It found it virtually impossible to use its collective security obligations due to the selfishness of its several important members.
- Mutual distrust and rivalries among the European states, which got reflected in the form of several security treaties which these signed with some states. Such treaties led to the signing of counter treaties which created a bigger sense of insecurity, fear and distrust.