Meaning and Nature of Political Science

  • Traditionally the term ‘politics’ has been used to identify the science of state and government.Aristotle, regarded as Father of Political Scienceused the term to designate the subject which concerns itself with the study of life in the ‘Polis’.
  • The traditional meaning of Politics focuses on the current political problems and issues that are faced and handled by the government of the state. The scope of theoretical politics are the theory of states, sovereignty, theory of government, theory of legislation, and theory of state as legal entity or as an artificial legal person.
  • The scope of applied politics includesExisting Forms of Government, the present State, the Government, Constitutional Law and Usage, Laws and Legislation, Diplomacy, Peace and war, treaties, conventions.
  • Political Science is the discipline studying State and Government.Politics is actual practice of Political activities and current problems and issues faced by the government.Politics differs from state to state and within a state from time to time.
  • The principles of political science are universal. The traditional view of Political Science has been rejected by the modern political scientists.No real distinction exists between Political Science and Politics.Modern Political Scientists use the concept of Political system for the study of politics.
  • According to the modern view, politics is the process of struggle for power in the society and process of conflict resolution. It is a process, by which authoritative values are made, implemented and adjudicated.The major structures of politicsare Government, Legislature, Executive, Judiciary, Pressure groups, Interest groups Bureaucracy, Political Elites, and Political Parties.
  • Science is defined as a subject which is distinguished by its exactness and predictability. According to traditional view politics is not a science. Experiments can be conducted in Science and the validity of conclusions proved but this is not possible in Political Science.
  • According to modern view politics is a science. Modern Political Scientists rejects the traditional definition of Science. According to the modern view, science does not stand for exactness, predictability and experimentation. But it means systematic i.e scientific method of study.
  • The study of Politics involves the use of scientific method, hence it is a science. Some Principles of science which were considered valid in the Nineteenth century were proved to be wrong in the twentieth century. Meteorology is considered to be a science but sometimes the weather predictions are found to be inaccurate.
  • Politics has several agreed principles now which are universally recognized and accepted by all. Law of cause and effect also operates in Politics

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  • Q1

    The elitist theory of power was propounded by

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Pareto.

    Explanation:
    Elitism as a political theory is associated with the works of Pareto, which arose in reaction to the spread of democratic ideals and increasing people’s participation in the political process. He considered elite rule as inevitable in all societies.
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  • Q2

    Identify the option that is associated with the Positive Idea of Politics.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Art of governance

    Explanation:
    Politics is an art of governance and denotes the importance of political activity.
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  • Q3

    Identify the thinker associated with the Modern Approach.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    David Easton

    Explanation:
    Robert Merton and David Easton were the advocates of Modern Approach. Emphasis was being placed on the impact of an environment on the political system.
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  • Q4

    Mark the correct statement related to the relevance of Political theory.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    It is relevant for politicians, bureaucrats, lawyers and judges etc.

    Explanation:
    Political Theory is relevant for politicians, bureaucrats, lawyers and judges etc. It has indirect relevance for the young generation. Basic knowledge about political ideas would lead to an informed society. Matured citizens contribute for the nation at large.
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  • Q5

    Mark the correct objective of Political Theory.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    To train citizens to think rationally about political questions.

    Explanation:
    The objective of political theory is to train citizens to think rationally about political questions, society and to assess the political events of their time.
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