- Liberty is, as important to human beings as soul is to the body. Without liberty there can be no real life; it can only be mere existence. Liberty stands for elimination of irrational restraints and prevalence of rational, legal restraints in society. Liberty creates conditions in which people can enjoy their rights and develop their best selves.
- Negative Liberty is due to absence of external constraints. It Specifies minimum area of non-interference for every individual and protects human dignity. Positive
- Liberty is due to the expansion of opportunities to express oneself. It is concerned with improving the conditions for the development of individual personality.
- Liberty is natural right as per social contract philosophers. Any restraint by law or state on individual liberty is unjust.
- There are six types of liberty and each is interconnected- natural, political, economic, Civil, national and individual.
- A balance between each type of liberty needs to be worked out for peaceful and widespread enjoyment of liberty.
- Measures that strengthen liberty are separation of power, decentralization, fundamental rights, rule of law and equality before law, independent judiciary, democracy and economic equality, passion for liberty and presence of enlightened citizens and well organised net work of NGOs.
- The negative view states that Law limits liberty. Individualists, Syndicalist and the Anarchists hold the view that law limits liberty.
- Those with positive notion of liberty say state expands the domain of liberty by providing equal opportunities to all. Law is not the enemy of liberty. In fact law protects and preserves liberty.
- Law protects liberty by substituting the irrational restraints by rational, objective and necessary restraints. Liberty needs protection against arbitrary and despotic law and policies.
- Any law which is not in the interest of the people and which is not backed by public opinion is an authoritarian law.
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Identify the correct example of Internal Conatraints.Marks:1
Explanation:Social and economic inequalities leads to internal constraints e.g. Caste.
Identify the idea which is the concern of Positive liberty.Marks:1
Explanation:Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, Gandhi are advocates of positive liberty. An individual can only be free in a society,which plays important role in his development.
Identify the correct idea of Negative Liberty.Marks:1
Explanation:Negative Liberty defends an area in which no external authority can interfere.
A free society is one that enables one to pursue one’s interests with aMarks:1
minimum of constraints.
Explanation:Freedom is considered valuable because it allows us to make choices and to exercise our judgement. It permits the exercise of the individual’s powers of reason and judgement.
Identify the focus of Modern liberalism.Marks:1
Explanation:Modern Liberalism focuses on an individual and entities like family, society, community have no value unless interests of the individuals are being taken care of.