Liberalism

  • In the 18th century, Liberalism had a powerful influence upon the Western Europe and America. It was the basis of both the French Revolution and the American war of Independence.
  • During the entire period of cold war (1945-1991), the world continued to live with the debate of liberalism vs socialism/Marxism.
  • Liberalism advocates that the aim of state/politics is to preserve individual rights and freedom. It stands for the development of individual and his society.
  • Liberalism repudiates the concentration of power in the hands of state in the name of welfare or development or equality.
  • Classical liberalism was the oldest and original form of liberalism. It was another name for individualism. It supported a limited government based on the consent of the people.
  • The classical liberalists regarded the individual as the Centre of the whole system and sought maximum liberty for him.
  • T. H. Green and J. S. Mill came forward to support that functions of the state should be directed towards the welfare and happiness of all. Both advocated that the state must work to remove hindrances in the way of individual’s development.
  • Liberalism stands for a liberal democratic system, pluralist society, toleration of dissent, public opinion as the determinant of governmental organisation and policies, and a system of governance characterised by a high level of continuous participation of people in the political process.
  • Directive Principles of constitution assimilate the basic features of the ideologies of liberalism, democratic socialism (Fabianism), Gandhism and welfare state.

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  • Q1

    According to liberal what is the aim of the state/politics?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    To preserve individual rights and freedom

    Explanation:

    Liberalism advocates that the aim of state/politics is to preserve individual rights and freedom. It stands for the development of individual and his society. It accepts individual development as the end and advocates that it must form the basis of all socio-economic development.

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  • Q2

    The word ‘liberalism’ owes its origin to…

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Latin word

    Explanation:

    The word liberalism owes its origin to the Latin word ‘Liberalis’ which means ‘freeman’. In this way, Liberalism stands for a social, economic and political order wherein man may feel free, safe and get encouraged to develop himself fully without any outside interference.

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  • Q3

    Which ideology became the guiding philosophy for the national liberation movements in Asian and African countries?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Liberalism

    Explanation:

    Liberalism became the guiding ideology for the national liberation movements in several Asian and African countries which were trying to overthrow the forces of imperialism-colonialism and to secure for their peoples sovereign independent status.

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  • Q4

    Who among the following are the proponents of classical liberalism?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    John Locke, Adam Smith, Herbert Spencer

    Explanation:

    John Locke, Adam Smith, Herbert Spencer propounded the classical liberalism.

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  • Q5

    Which is the oldest form of liberalism?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Classical Liberalism

    Explanation:

    Classical liberalism was the oldest or rather the original form of liberalism.

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