Divine Origin Theory

  • Divine Origin Theory of the State is the oldest theory of the state. Advocates of this theory believe that kings rules by God’s will, order and authorisation. The Divine Theory of the State is propounded by almost all religions of the world.
  • The Old Testament records that the king is appointed by God and God has the sole power to remove him. King is regarded as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu according to several Hindu scriptures.
  • During the 17th and 18th centuries the Divine Origin Theory of the State was strongly propagated by the kings and their supporters. Divine theory is propagated by religious scriptures and has a mythological content. It does not give State and Government its due as a political institution in society.
  • The reasons for the decline and rejection of the theory were that politics was separated from religion and the Church was separated from Politics. Another reason is the birth of Nationalism and the consequent appearance of Democracy.
  • Historians and Scholars attempted to explain the origin of state in terms of family and thus put forth the patriarchal and matriarchal (Genetic) theories of evolution of state.
  • Force theory believed that state makes use of force for commanding obedience to its laws. The Force Theory was supported by Church fathers during the middle ages, who tried to discredit the State as a child of force and as an instrument of force and domination.
  • In the contemporary age of liberal democracy, no one gives any real importance to the theories of divine origin of state and the divine rights of the monarchy.
  • Monarchy lives as constitutional monarchy in Malaysia, Belgium, Denmark, Japan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and some other states of the world.

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  • Q1

    Which of the following factor is not suggested by Gilchrist for the rapid decline of Divine origin theory?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Political contract

    Explanation:

    According to Gilchrist, the reasons for decline of divine origin were: ---

    i. Emergence and popularity of Social Contract theory especially during the 17th and the 18th century

    ii. Politics was separated from religion. The Church was separated from Politics.

    iii. The birth of Nationalism and the consequent appearance of Democracy

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  • Q2

    Which of the following is the oldest theory of the origin of state

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Divine origin theory

    Explanation:

    Divine origin theory of the state has been the oldest theory. It seeks to advocate that the state is a creation of God and the King rules the state by God’s will, order and authorization.

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  • Q3

    Which theory advocates the view that stronger (Haves) dominates the Have-nots (Poor)?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Marxists

    Explanation:

    Marxists advocate the view that the stronger i.e. the haves dominate the have-nots (poor) and thus exploits them. In other words they are the advocates of Force theory.

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  • Q4

    According to Hindu scriptures king is incarnation of which Hindu God?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Vishnu

    Explanation:

    King is regarded as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu according to several Hindu scriptures. Heaven is also regarded as kingdom of Lord Indra according to Indian mythology. Divine origin of the King and his state is also supported by Hindu scriptures.

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  • Q5

    According to divine theory if king commits cruelties on subjects, who can punish him?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    God

    Explanation:

    The king is accountable only to God. Only God can punish the King in case of cruelties committed by him. The people do not have the right to punish the King.

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