Evolutionary Theory

  • The historical evolutionary theory holds the view that the state has originated through a gradual evolutionary process. State is neither the handiwork of God, nor the result of a superior physical force, nor the creation of a resolution or contract, nor the mere expansion of family.
  • It treats the state as a product of historical development like any other human institution.The key factors which played a part in the evolution of the state are natural social instinct, kinship and family, religion, force, economic needs and activities and political consciousness.
  • We can identify the following stages through which the state has evolved over the years.
  • Tribal state: the Oriental Empire- Roaming tribes generally settled down in regions where nature was bountiful and responsive to the needs of man. These states were essentially power and property states, built on wealth and military force. Each tried to expand and dominate others. Wars and instability was the order of the day.
  • The City state-the next stage in evolution of state took place with the birth of city states in Ancient Greece around 1000BC. When Greeks settled in Europe they got organised in local communities.
  • The Roman Empire- by the close of the first century B.C., the Greek system of government came to be replaced by the World Roman Empire and the entire western world got united under a single political regime (Empire).
  • Feudal state- upon the disintegration of Roman Empire, its territories fell into the hands of powerful nobles- big land owners. Land tenure came to be accepted as the basis of man’s status in the society.
  • The Church vs. the state- by the time Roman Empire got disintegrated, the church had got itself established as a potent authority. When the Empire fell to pieces, it was in a position to step into its place and to give Europe peace and order. The church even asserted its supremacy over the temporal kings. This led to the emergence of conflict between the church and the king.
  • Renaissance and Reformation- Renaissance was the period in Europe between the 14th and 16th century. Renaissance implied the revival of the classical learning and involved the transitional movement in Europe which changed the medieval outlook into a modern one.
  • The coming of reformation, which can be described as an indirect result of renaissance further gave strength to the spirit and forces of nationalism.
  • Birth of the Nation-State- politically the modern age dawned with the emergence of Absolute Monarch in various states of Europe which now came to be nation-states and which had over thrown the feudal states.
  • The rise of nation-state in England, the American Revolution of 1776 and French revolution of 1789, gave strength to the concept of nation-state fortified with the spirit and philosophy of nationalism. The unification of Germany (1864-71) gave further strength to the concept of nationalism as the hall mark of the state.

 

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  • Q1

    Which of the following is not the key factor that played a part in the evolution of a state?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Social contract

    Explanation:

    Social contract theory wrongly projects state as man made institution which had its birth through social contract of the people. Evolutionary theory refutes this claim of social contract.

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  • Q2

    “State came into existence for the sake of life and continues to exist for the good life”. Who gave this statement?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Aristotle

    Explanation:

    The society needs peace, order and protection. State came into existence for the sake of life and continues to exist for the good life i.e. for securing happy, prosperous and self-sufficient life.

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  • Q3

    “State is neither the handiwork of God, nor the result of a superior physical force, nor the creation of a resolution or contract, nor the mere expansion of family.” Who Said this statement?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Garner

    Explanation:

    Garner believed that state has been the product of a natural, gradual, slow and imperceptible process of social evolution.

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  • Q4

    According to evolutionary theory the concept of private property emerged with the increase in what kind of activities?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Economic

    Explanation:

    The concept of private property emerged with the increasing economic needs and corresponding increase in economic activities. The idea of animal property emerged with the domestication of animals.

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  • Q5

    On which approach the historical-evolutionary theory of origin of the state relies?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Scientific

    Explanation:

    The Historical - Evolutionary theory relies on a scientific approach to the question of the origin of the state. The advocates hold the view that the state has originated through a gradual evolutionary process.

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