Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Animal husbandry is the practice of raising and breeding livestock.Fishery and poultry farming are the extended branches of animal husbandry. Poultry farm management leads to the selection of disease free breeds for the production of eggs and broilers. Animal breeding improves the production efficiency of animals.
Dairying is the management of animals which provide milk and its products for human consumption. Dairy farming includes the rearing of cattle and buffaloes. Dairy farm management leads to an increase in the milk yield along with improved quality. Roughage, concentrates, minerals and vitamins are the different types of cattle feed.
Poultry farming is the practice of raising poultry for the purpose of meat and eggs for food. Animal breeding refers to the mating between the selected parents with desired characters. It can be inbreeding or outbreeding.
Apiculture is performed in order to obtain honey and wax. An artificial beehive is used for the purpose of apiculture.
Aquaculture involves the farming of fresh and salt water organisms.
Pisciculture or fish farming refers to the rearing and breeding of fish; hence pisciculture is a subset of aquaculture.Fisheries can be of three types: marine, freshwater or brackish.
Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create plants with high yield, disease resistance etc.
It helps in qualitative and quantitative enhancement of crop yield, and is one of the most promising techniques to improve the public health. There are various steps in plant breeding.
Sonalika and Kalyan Sona are high yielding and disease resistant varieties of Indian wheat.
Mutation induced genetic variation is used for obtaining disease resistant plant varieties. This results into formation of a new character or trait apart from the parental type.
Various breeding approaches used for the improvement of quality traits include evolution of germplasm, mutagenesis, and interspecific hybridisation.
Single cell protein refers to the dried microbial cells from pure microbial culture such as culture of algae, bacteria, filamentous fungi, yeasts, etc. SCPs are used as a dietary supplement.
Plant tissue culture leads to the development of a large number of clones in short period of time. It overcome the seasonal restriction to grow plants and also helps to enhance disease resistance in plants.
It is based on the ability of a cell or explant to regenerate into a whole plant. This unique property of the plants cells is called cellular totipotency.
Somatic hybridisation is the development of hybrid plants through fusion of isolated somatic protoplasts of two different plant varieties.