Leadership is the process of influencing behavior of people by making them struggle voluntarily towards achievement of organisational goals. Feature of leadership:
•    ability to influence others,
•    achieving organisational goals,
•    involving  interpersonal relations, etc.
Leadership is important as it helps in guiding and inspiring employees, facilitating change, securing co-operation of employees, etc. A leader should possess qualities like good appearance, knowledge, integrity and objectivity, initiative, communication skills, motivation skills, etc.
There are three types of leadership styles namely Authoritative, Democratic and Laissez Faire.
•    Authoritative is the boss centered leadership style, characterized by maximum possible centralisation of authority, strict control and supervision, unilateral decision making  and one way communication .
•    Democratic is a group centered leadership style, having delegation of authority, participataive decision making and two way communication.
•    Laissez Faire is the subordinate centred leadership style having complete delegation of authority and free flow communication.
Communication refers to the process of exchange of ideas, facts, views, feelings, etc. either in verbal, written or gestural form, between or among people to create a common understanding. Coordination is the process by which a manager synchronises the activities of different departments and a force that binds all the other functions of management.

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  • Q1

    An newly set up automobile company has employed unskilled & uneducated workers, who needed constant monitoring. The supervisor should be a/ an


    authoritative leader.


    Authoritative leadership is suitable in case of uneducated, indisciplined and unskilled workers. The leader takes all decisions & constantly monitors them.

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  • Q2

    Briefly explain the different leadership styles.


    The different leadership styles are:

    i. Authoritative Leadership- This refers to a ‘boss centered’ leadership style, characterised by maximum possible centralisation of authority, strict control and supervision, unilateral decision making and one way communication. In this style, the leader gives orders & insists his followers to obey them.

    Policies are determined without consulting the subordinates. The leader does not provide any information about future plans. The subordinates do not have authority to influence leader’s decision.

    ii. Laissez Faire leadership- This refers to ‘subordinate centered’ leadership style having complete delegation of authority and free flow of communication. The leader gives complete freedom to subordinates

    He/ she avoids usage of power and lets the subordinates decide their own goals & sort out their problems themselves. In this style, the leader does not interfere in the affairs of subordinates

    iii. Democratic Leadership- This refers to a ‘group centered’ leadership style, having delegation of authority, participative decision making and two way communication. Here, the policies are framed after consulting with the subordinates

    The leader favours decision making by the group, which helps in

    a. Improving attitude & morale of employees towards job & the organisation

    b. Allowing the subordinates to become a part of the team

    c. Better decision making by leaders

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  • Q3

    Anna Hazare is known as a leader of the anti-corruption movement in India. What is meant by ‘leadership’? Enumerate the qualities of a good leader.


    Leadership may be defined as the art of influencing the people so that they will strive willingly towards the realisation of common goals. In other words, leadership refers to the equality of the behaviour of the individuals whereby they guide people and their activities in organised efforts.

    The qualities of a good leader are:

    i. A good leader should have knowledge and competence so that he can easily instruct his subordinates.

    ii. A leader should possess high level of integrity and honesty to be a role model to others regarding the ethics and value.

    iii. A leader should be an effective motivator. He should understand the needs of people and motivate them through satisfying their needs.

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  • Q4

    Distinguish between a leader and a manager.


    Following table shows distinction between a manager and a leader :

    Basis of Distinction



    (i) Existence

    Managers exist only as a part of formal organisation.

    Leaders exist as a part of formal as well as informal organisation.

    (ii) Focus

    Focus of managers is on achieving the organisational goals.

    Focus of leaders is on achieving the expectations and aspirations of their followers.

    (iii) Authority

    Managers enjoy formal authority.

    Leaders enjoy acceptance authority. Followers willingly grant them right to lead them.

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  • Q5

    N.R. Narayan Murthy has been known as a ‘Leader’ par excellence as the co- founder and Chairman in Infosys Ltd, the largest software company of India. Explain the importance of his role as the element of directing.


    N.R. Narayan Murthy has been a leader of Infosys Ltd employees, across its functions.
    The importance of leadership can be highlighted as below:
    i. Leadership helps in influencing behaviour of people and makes them to positively contribute towards the achievement of organizational goal.
    ii. Leadership secures cooperation of the members of the organisation by developing the feeling of initiative and enthusiasm in the employees.
    iii. Leadership creates confidence in employees by recognizing the hidden talent and qualities of the employees and encourages them to highlight these hidden talents to boost up their confidence level. Leaders recognize the abilities of the subordinate which provides psychological support and confidence to the employees.
    iv. Leadership improves productivity by properly utilizing physical, financial and human resources. Leader develops cooperation, confidence and motivation among the employees which results in maximum utilization of resources.
    v. Leadership helps in creating team spirit by encouraging the employees to share goal and work collectively. Leaders guide the subordinates to give importance to the group goal rather than individual goals.

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