Supervision and Motivation

Directing refers to the process of instructing, guiding, counseling, motivating and leading people in the organisation to achieve its planned objectives. Features of directing:
•    initiating action,
•    pervasive,
•    continuous process,
•    downward flow, etc.
Principles of directing include harmony of objectives, unity of command, unity of direction, etc.
Supervision is the process of overseeing the actions of subordinates and providing instructions to ensure optimum utilisation of resources to achieve work targets. Characteristics of supervision:
•    processes and techniques,
•    instructing,
•    guiding,
•    inspiring subordinates,
•    universal activity performed at all levels, etc.
Functions of supervisor consist of guiding, acting as a link, training, etc.
Motivation is the process of infusing enthusiasm in employees and inspiring them to work and act in a desired manner to achieve organisational objectives. Features of motivations comprise of internal/ psychological feeling, goal oriented, complex process, continuous process, etc.
Process of motivation starts with unlimited need creating tension. This stimulates drives and drives generate search behavior which satisfies need and consequently results in reduction of tension. Motivations in an organisation are very important for improving performance, better organisational image, reduction in employee turnover, etc. Maslow’s theory of motivation is based on five human needs:
•    basic physiological needs,
•    safety and Security needs,
•    social needs,
•    esteem needs and
•    self actualisation needs.
Incentives are all those measures and techniques which are used in motivating people to improve performance. Financial incentives include pay and allowances, productivity linked wages, bonus and commission, etc. Non-financial incentives for motivation include status, organisational climate, career advancement, job enrichment, etc.


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