Overview of Functions of Management

Functions of management are classified into Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing, Controlling and Coordination.
Planning refers to the management process of setting organisational objectives and targets for a given period and formulating an action plan to achieve it. Process of planning consists of gathering information, laying down objectives, developing premises, etc. Planning helps in focusing on the achievement of objectives, reducing risk of uncertainty, improving efficiency of employees, etc.
Organising is the management process that initiates implementation of plans by clarifying jobs and working relationships and effectively deploying resources for the achievement of organisational goals and objectives. Process of organising consists of identifying, classifying, assigning activities to be performed, delegating authority, etc. Organising helps in facilitating growth and diversification, optimum utilisation of resources, encouraging innovation and creativity.
Staffing refers to the management process which aims at filling various posts identified in an organisational structure. Process of staffing consists of manpower planning, recruitment, selection and placement, training and development, etc. Directing refers to the management process of instructing, guiding, counseling, motivating and leading people in the organisation to achieve its planned objectives. Elements of directing consist of motivation, supervision, leadership and communication.
Directing initiates action, integrates efforts of employees, improves efficiency and facilitates changes.
Controlling refers to the process of measuring performance, comparing it with standards and taking corrective action where necessary. Controlling ensures achievement of goals, optimum utilisation of resources, facilitates delegation of authority etc. Process of controlling consists of establishing standards of performance, measuring actual performance, comparing actual results with standards, etc.
Coordination is defined as the process by which a manager synchronises the activities of different departments. Coordination helps in eliminating conflicts between groups and departments, providing balance between different abilities, integrating needs and interests of diverse groups etc.

 

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  • Q1

    Which function of management is known as ‘Management in Action’ and why?

    Marks:2
    Answer:

    Directing is regarded as the management in action because it puts plans into action for the achievement of organisational objectives. By issuing instructions and guidelines to the employees in an organisation, the managers try to achieve desired results. Through the elements of Directing- Supervision, motivation, leadership & communication, plans are executed in an efficient and effective manner.

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  • Q2

    Explain the concept of a ‘Leader’.

    Marks:2
    Answer:

    A leader is one who guides, instructs and influences the employees and brings harmony in the organisation.
    He/ she creates harmony by allowing subordinates to talk about their feelings and disagreements and providing clarifications, if any.
    A leader should possess qualities like confidence, courage, foresightedness, determination, knowledge, good listener, etc.

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  • Q3

    Define planning.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Planning is an intellectual process of establishing objectives and future course of action, prior to taking any action.

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  • Q4

    What is compared with what in controlling?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    In controlling, actual performance of an organisation is compared with the standard performance.

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  • Q5

    What is training?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Training means equipping employees with the required skills to perform various kinds of jobs assigned to them in an expected manner.

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