Management Principles and Principles & Techniques of Scientific Management
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What are principles of scientific management?Marks:2
Scientific management is based on careful observation, objective analysis and innovative outlook. It is the organisation of study of work, the analysis of work into its simplest elements and the systematic improvements of the workers performance of each element.
How do principles of management evaluate managerial behavior?Marks:2
Principles of management prescribe what one should do to manage things in a given situation. These principles attempt to prescribe and evaluate the behavior of managers.
Explain what do you understand by principles of management.Marks:2
Principles of management are fundamental truths that explain the relationship between two or more variables under given situations. They provide guidelines for managerial decision-making and action.
State any three needs of principles of management.Marks:3
Principles of management are required for the following reasons:
i)To increase efficiency: Principles of management have been developed from experiments and observations. These provide necessary guidelines to managers as to how they should function in different situations.
ii)To attain social goals: Principles of management enable managers to make optimum use of human and material resources. Management coordinates efforts of people so that individual objectives get translated into social attainments.
iii)To train managers: Formal methods of training managers in institutes and universities are possible only when there are fundamental principles and concepts.
Explain the basic principles of scientific management.Marks:5
The basic principles of scientific management are:
i)Science, not rule of thumb- This principle specifies that each and every job and the method of doing it is based on scientific study and analysis rather than on trial and error. Taylor believed that there was only one best method to maximise efficiency. The amount of work to be done should be determined through work study and the resources of the organisation – men, material and machines should also be standardized.
Decisions are made on the basis of facts and by the application of scientific decisions.
ii)Harmony, not discord: Taylor emphasised that there should be complete harmony between management and workers. He advocates complete ‘Mental Revolution’, i.e. change in the attitude of both management and workers, for bringing harmony between them. It encourages workers to work hard and accept change for the benefit of the company and management should share the gains of the company with workers.
iii)Maximum, not restricted output: Conflict between management and workers arises mainly due to division of surplus.. Taylor suggested the best way to resolve the conflict is to increase the size of surplus so that each side can have a larger share.
iv)Scientific selection, training and development of workers: Workers should be selected and trained keeping in view the job requirements. Each and every worker should be encouraged to develop his full potential.