Management Principles and Principles and Techniques of Scientific Management

Principles of management are broad and general guidelines for decision-making and behaviour of managers. Principles are different from techniques and values. They are general guidelines, flexible, formed by practice, mainly behavioural, contingent and have universal applicability. Significance of principles of management:
•    they provide managers with useful insights into reality,
•    optimum utilisation of resources,
•    effective administration,
•    help in making scientific decisions,
•    help in meeting changing environment needs and requirements and
•    help in fulfilling social responsibility.
Scientific Management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and the cheapest way. It aims at:
•    increasing production and providing better quality goods through the use of better and latest technological methods of production,
•    reducing cost by using various cost control techniques,
•    eliminating wastes at every level of production,
•    placing right persons at right jobs through scientific selection and
•    training of employees and paying higher wages to efficient workers.
Principles of scientific management:
•    Science not rule of thumb;
•    harmony, not discord;
•    cooperation, not individualism and
•    development of each and every person

Techniques of scientific management:
•    functional foremanship,
•    standardisation of work and simplification of work,
•    method study,
•    motion study,
•    time study,
•    fatigue study and
•    differential piece wage system.

 

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  • Q1

    Differentiate between time study and motion study.

    Marks:4
    Answer:

    Points of Difference

    Time Study

    Motion Study

    1)

    Meaning

    It is an art of observing, studying and recording time required to perform every job.

    It is a science of eliminating unnecessary motions in the works.

    2)

    Objective

    It aims at increasing the output by eliminating carelessness of workers by setting standard time.

    It aims at increasing the product and productivity by eliminating unnecessary motions.

    3)

    Improvements

    It aims at improving the performance of workers by discriminating them as efficient and inefficient.

    It improves the performance of the workers without any discrimination.

    4)

    Result

    It results in framing suitable incentive schemes and determining labour costs

    It results in cost reduction

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  • Q2

    What are the characteristics of Scientific Management ?

    Marks:4
    Answer:

    Scientific management has the following characteristics:-

    1. Predetermined objectives – In case of scientific management, the objective of every job is predetermined and in order to achieve that objective physical and human resources are applied.
    2. Predetermined plans – In order to achieve the predetermined goal of every job, effective plans for the most appropriate use of the available resources are prepared. Planning in this case is goal oriented.
    3. Scientific analysis of plans – The utility, effectiveness and suitability of plans is tested and ascertained before it is put in practical operation.
    4. Set of rules – In order to implement the plans a set of rules are made.
    5. Work studies – Standardization of time, motion, fatigue and work is done after careful time, motion, work & fatigue studies, so that maximum output could be achieved at minimum sacrifice.

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  • Q3

    Explain giving reasons the situations under which the techniques of Taylor are not applicable.

    Marks:3
    Answer:

    Some techniques of Taylor are not universally applicable under some situations. These are:-

    a) Functional Foremanship: This technique is not applicable in the organizations adopting principle of unity of command.

    b) Differential piece rate system: This technique is not possible in organisations following principle of equity.

    c) Simplification: This technique is not suitable for organisations having objective of diversification and expansion of line of products and varieties.

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  • Q4

    According to Taylor, "Even a small production activity like loading pigs of iron into boxcars can be scientifically planned and managed”. Which principle of Taylor is emphad here?

    Marks:3
    Answer:

    The principle specified here is- Science not rule of Thumb.

    This principle specifies that each and every job and the method of doing it is based on scientific study and analysis rather than on trial and error. Taylor believed that there was only one best method to maximise efficiency. According to this principle, work assigned to any employee should be observed, analysed with respect to each and every element and part and time involved in it. Decisions are made on the basis of facts and by the application of scientific decisions.

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  • Q5

    Write down the characteristics of management principles.

    Marks:4
    Answer:

    Characteristics/Nature of management principles are:-

    1. Universal Application – Management principles are applied in every situation, where the objectives are attained through group efforts. All social, economic, political, cultural or even religious organizations apply management principles for the successful operations of their activities.
    2. Flexibility – The business situations and its social economic environment is always changing, so the management principles are dynamic enough to suit the , nature, need and situation of the business. Improvement and modification of management principles is a continuous process, so the principles are always flexible.
    3. General statements – Management principles are concerned mostly with human behaviour, which cannot be tested under controlled conditions i.e., a laboratory. Human behaviours are always unpredictable, so management principles are not as exact as the principles of physical science. This is why management principles are merely statements.
    4. Influencing human behaviours – Human element is an essential factor of production. It activates and extracts work from other factors also. Every worker is individually different from other workers. Management is concerned with the integration of individual efforts and how to channeling them towards achieving the desired results.

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