Note Making

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  • Q1

    Read the following passage and make notes. Also write a short summary of the passage.
    It is not from one or just two that we hear that women drive much worse than men, but from a large number of people. Statistics confirm that women drivers have crashed less number of times than men drivers have; but it is another fact that more than 95% of drivers are men!
    Everywhere, women, have been under a strict patriarchal order for generations. It was a decade ago that half of the women worldwide came out of their veils of subjection. Because she had been a victim of a male chauvinist world, she is, much the same everywhere, a little over enthusiast on roads, a little over protected and overlooked and taken for granted in the modern society, especially when she is behind the wheels.
    There is no arguing that a section of the brain that remained inactive for long could go dead in a long run. What experts feel is that in most of the countries, women had seldom used that section of their brain that controls precaution and extreme care other than care for their babies and making sure that her husband's bathing water was properly heated. Women are not careless by nature but they are stereotyped as the weaker, careless sex.
    What most thinkers believe is that in the long run, women will overcome this stereotype. After initial damages and clashes on roads, women will learn the wisdom that they too should be careful and that they have no excuses because they are equal to men.



    Women Drivers

    1. Opinion twrds Female drivers

    a. women drive worse than man

    b. stats- women drivers have crashed less no. of times

    c. 95% of drivers are men.

    2. rsns for being bad drivers

    a. Under strict patriarchal rule for generations.

    b. as a victim of male chauvinistic world, she is :

    (i) over enthusiastic

    (ii) Overprotected

    (iii) Overlooked

    (iv) Taken for granted

    c. part of brain rspnsbl for precaution gone dead.

    (i) reason - inactivity for long

    3. Future for women drivers

    a. shall overcome impairment

    b. learn wisdom

    c. be more careful as they are equal to men.

    Key to Abbreviation

    twrds. - towards

    stats. - statistics

    % - Percentage

    Rsns - Reasons

    rspnsbl. - Responsible



    It's not unusual to hear that women drive worse than men. However statistics confirm that women drivers have crashed their vehicles less. One reason behind women's lack of driving skills can be their lack of autonomy in the patriarchal social structure. As a victim of the chauvinistic male order, she is a little over enthusiastic, over protected and overlooked and taken for granted when she is driving.

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  • Q2

    Read the given extract and answer the questions that follow:

    Advertising as a discrete form is generally agreed to have begun alongside newspaper, in the seventeen century. Frenchmen Theophraste Renaudot (Louise XIII's official physician) created a very early version of the supermarket notice board, a 'bureau des addresses et des recontres.' Partisans seeking or offering jobs, or wanting to buy or sell goods, put notices at the office Ille de la Cite. So that the maximum number of people had access to this information, Renaudot created La Gazette in 1631, the first French newspaper. The personal ad was born.

    In England, line advertisements in newspapers were very popular in the second half of the seventeenth century, often announcing the publication of a new book, or the opening of a new play. The Great Fire of London in 1666 was a boost to this type of advertisement, as people used newspapers in the aftermath of the fire to advertise lost & found, and changes of address. These early line ads were predominantly informative, containing descriptive, rather than persuasive language.

    When goods were handmade, by local craftsmen, in small quantities, there was no need for advertising. Buyer and seller were personally known to one another, and the buyer was likely to have direct experience of the product. The buyer also had much more contact with the production process, especially for items like clothing (hand-stitched to fit) and food (assembled from simple, raw ingredients). Packaging and branding were unknown and unnecessary before the Industrial Revolution. However, once technological advances enabled the mass production of soap, china, clothing etc., the close personal links between buyer and seller were broken. Rather than selling out of their back yards to local customers, manufacturers sought markets that were a long way from their factories, sometimes on the other side of the world.

    This created a need for advertising. Manufacturers needed to explain and recommend their products to customers whom they would never meet personally. Manufacturers, in chasing far-off markets, were beginning to compete with each other. Therefore they needed to brand their products, in order to distinguish them from one another, and create mass recommendations to support the mass production and consumption model.

    Newspapers provided the ideal vehicle for this new phenomenon, advertisements. New technologies were also making newspapers cheaper, more widely available, and more frequently printed. They had more pages, so they could carry more, bigger, ads. Simple descriptions, plus prices, of products served their purpose until the mid-nineteenth century, when technological advances meant that illustrations could be added to advertising, and colour was also an option. Advertisers started to add copy under the simple headings, describing their products using persuasive prose.

    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes including all the important points only using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title.

    (b) Write a summary of the above in about 80-100 words.




    1. Beginning

    1.1. Began in 17th century

    1.2. Created by- Theophraste Renaudot for the first French newspaper, La Gazette in 1631.

    2. Popularity in England:

    2.1. Line advertising- announcing book publi., new plays

    2.2. Great fire of London-

    2.2.1. Ads. For lost and found

    2.2.2. change of address

    3. Role of Techn. Advancement

    3.1. Mass production of items broke personal links.

    3.2. Manufacturer sought far-away markets.

    4. Requirement for Ads

    4.1. explain and recommend their products

    4.2. rising competn

    4.3. Need for:

    4.3.1. branding

    4.3.2. distinction

    4.3.3. recommendation

    5. Importance of Newspaper

    5.1. Techn. made n.p cheaper, frequent and widely available.

    5.2. More pages, carry bigger ads.

    5.3. Later illustration and colours were started getting used.

    Key to Abbreviation

    Publi. - Publication

    Ads. - Advertisement

    competn - Competition

    Techn. - Technological

    n.p - Newspaper



    Advertising began in seventeenth century when Theophraste Renaudot created La Gazette in 1631, the first French newspaper which carried personal ads. In England, line advertisements which often announced new plays and book, were highly popular. After the Great Fire of London, a lot of people used ads to advertise lost and found and changes of address. With the advent of technology which enabled mass production, manufacturers sought a wider market. Rising competition, the need for branding, creating distinction and recommendation forced manufactures to seek the help of newspaper ads to advertise their goods. New technology made newspaper cheaper, frequent and widely available facilitating the spread of advertisement.

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  • Q3

    Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

    The city of Petra, capital of the Nabataean Arabs, is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world, it is Located 262 km south of Amman, Petra the world wonder is undoubtedly Jordan's most valuable treasure and greatest tourist attraction, and it is visited by tourists from all over the world.

    Petra is a unique example of an astonishing ancient civilization. More than 2,000 years ago, the Nabataean's carved this city into the mountains, also Petra is known as the Rose City due to the color of the stone out of which it is carved, it is established possibly as early as 312 BCE as the capital city of the Nabataeans .

    The site remained unknown to the western world until 1812, when it was rediscovered by the Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt during his expedition.

    Entrance to the city is through the Siq, a narrow gorge, over 1km in length, which is flanked on either side by soaring, 80m high cliffs. As you reach the end of the Siq you will catch your first glimpse of Al-Khazneh (Treasury), a massive facade, 30m wide and 43m high, carved out of the sheer, dusky pink rock-face and dwarfing everything around it. It was carved in the early 1st century as the tomb of an important Nabataean king and represents the engineering genius of the Nabataeans.

    There are hundreds of elaborate rock-cut tombs with intricate carvings. The tombs were carved to last throughout the afterlife and 500 have survived. Here also is a massive Nabataean-built, a Roman-style theatre, which could seat 3,000 people. There are obelisks, temples, sacrificial altars and colonnaded streets, and high above, overlooking the valley, is the impressive Ad-Deir Monastery − a flight of 800 rock cut steps takes you there.

    Within the site there are also two excellent museums; the Petra Archaeological Museum, and the Petra Nabataean Museum both of which represent finds from excavations in the Petra region and an insight into Petra's colourful past.

    A 13th century shrine, built by the Mameluk Sultan, Al Nasir Mohammad, to commemorate the death of Aaron, the brother of Moses, can be seen on top of Mount Aaron in the Sharah range.

    On December 6, 1985, Petra was designated a World Heritage Site. UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage". Also Petra was chosen by the Smithsonian Magazine as one of the 28 places you should visit them before you die.


    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes including all the important points only using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title.

    (b) Write a summary of the above in about 80-100 words.


    Petra-The Rose City

    1. Description

    1.1. Loc. 262 km South of Amman

    1.2 Jordan's most valuable treasure

    2. Constrcn and Re- Discovery

    2.1 Constrcn:

    2.1.1. 2,000 years ago by Nabataeans

    2.1.2. Was the capital city of the Nabataeans

    2.2. Rediscovery

    2.2.1. 1812 by the Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt

    3. Main entrance- Al-Khazneh (Treasury),

    3.1. 30m wide and 43m high

    3.2. carved out of the sheer, dusky pink rock-face

    3.3. constructed- 1st century as the tomb of an important Nabataean king

    4. Site

    4.1. a massive Nabataean-built, a Roman-style theatre, which could seat 3,000 people.

    4.2. Ad-Deir Monastery

    4.3. Museum:

    4.3.1. the Petra Arch. Museum

    4.3.2. the Petra Nabataean Museum

    4.4. A 13th century shrine to commemorate the death of Aaron, the brother of Moses,

    5. Repu. Now:

    5.1. Dsgntd a world heritage site on Dec, 1985

    5.2. Placed On list by Smithsonian Magazine- 28 places to visit before

    Key to Abbreviation

    Constrcn - Construction

    Loc. - Located

    Arch. - Archeological

    Repu. - Reputation

    Dsgntd - Designated


    Petra-The Rose City

    Petra, the Rose City which is located 262 km South of Amman. The city was constructed 2000 years ago by Nabataeans as their capital. The city was lost to the outside world only to be rediscovered in 1812 by the Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. Entrance to the city is through a massive 30m wide and 30m high pink fa�ade, known as, Al-Khazneh. The site consists of a Roman-style theatre, Ad-Deir monastery, two Museums and a 13th century shrine to commemorate the death of Aaron, the brother of Moses. In December 1985 Petra was designated as a world heritage site.

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  • Q4

    Read the following passage and make notes. Also write a short summary of the passage.

    At 160 m (520 ft.), the Capital Gate is the world's furthest leaning man-made tower. It is one of the tallest buildings in the city and inclines 18 degrees to the west. The owner and developer of the Capital Gate is the Abu Dhabi National Exhibitions Company.

    In June 2010, Guinness World Records certified Capital Gate as the "World's furthest leaning man-made tower." The new record shows that the Capital Gate tower has been built to lean 18 degrees westwards; more than four times that of the Leaning Tower of Suurhusen. Investigation and evaluation, which was made by a Guinness appointed awards committee, started in January 2010, when the exterior was completed.

    The Capital Gate project was able to achieve its inclination through an engineering technique, known as pre-cambering, that allows floor plates to be stacked vertically up to the 12th storey, and staggered, one over another by between 300 mm to 1400 mm.

    Capital Gate was designed by architectural firm RMJM and was completed in 2011. Capital Gate now houses the 5-star Hyatt Capital Gate hotel and additional office space.


    Capital Gate

    1. Records

    a. World's furthest leaning man-made tower.

    b. Tallest building of Abu Dhabi

    c. Incl. 4 times more than Leaning Tow. of Suurhusen

    2. Owned by the Abu Dhabi National Exhibitions Company

    3. Architecture

    (i) engg. Technique- pre cambering

    (ii) Has 35 flrs

    (iii) ext. completed in 2010

    4. Purpose

    a. houses City Gate Hyatt hotel

    b. office spaces

    Key Words

    Incl. − inclination

    Tow. − tower

    Flr. − floors

    Ext. − exterior

    Engg. - Engineering

    b) Summary

    Capital Gate of Abu Dhabi is the furthest leaning manmade tower and the tallest tower in Abu Dhabi. Its inclination was measured to be four times greater than that of the Leaning Tower of Suurhusen, Germany. The building is owned by Abu Dhabi National Exhibitions. Company. It is designed using an engineering technique known as pre-cambering. It is a structure containing 35 floors. The exteriors of the Capital Gate were finished by 2010. Presently, it houses the Capital Gate Hyatt along with a few offices.

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  • Q5

    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

    So great is our passion for doing things ourselves that we are becoming increasingly less dependent on specialized labour. No one can plead ignorance of a subject any longer, for there are countless of do-it-yourself publications. Armed with the right tools and materials, newly-weds gaily embark on the task of decorating their own homes. Men of all ages spend hours of their leisure time installing their own fireplaces, laying-out their own gardens, building garages and making furniture. Some really keen enthusiasts go so far as to make their own record players and radio transmitters. Shops cater for the do-it-yourself craze not only by running special advisor services for novices, but by offering consumers bits and pieces which they can assemble at home. Such things provide an excellent outlet for pent up creative energy, but unfortunately not all of us are born handymen.

    Wives tend to believe that their husbands are infinitely resourceful and versatile. Even husbands who can hardly drive a nail in straight are supposed to be born electricians, carpenters, plumbers and mechanics. When lights fuse ,furniture gets rickety, pipes get clogged, or vacuum cleaners fail to operate, wives automatically assume that their husbands will somehow put things right. The worst thing about the do-it-yourself game is that sometimes husbands live under the delusion that they can do anything even when they have been repeatedly proved wrong. It is a question of pride as much as anything else.

    Last spring my wife suggested that I call in a man to look at our lawn mower. It had broken down the previous summer, and though I promised to repair it, I had never got round to it. I wouldn't hear of the suggestion and said that I would fix it myself. One Saturday afternoon I hauled the machine into the garden and had a close look at it. As far as I could see, it only needed a minor adjustment; a turn of a screw here, a little lightening up there, a drop of oil and it would be as good as new. Inevitably the repair job was not quite so simple. The mower firmly refused to mow, so I decided to dismantle it. The garden was soon littered with chunks of metal, which had once made up a lawn-mover. But I was extremely pleased with myself. I had traced the cause of the trouble. One of the links in the chain that drives the wheels had snapped.

    After buying a new chain I was faced with the insurmountable task of putting the confusing jigsaw puzzle together again. I was not surprised to find that the machine still refused to work after I had reassembled it, for the simple reason that I was left with several curiously shaped bits of metal which did not seem to fit anywhere. I gave up in despair. The weeks passed and the grass grew. When my wife nagged me to do something about it, I told her that either I would have to buy a new mower or let the grass grow. Needless to say that our house is now surrounded by a jungle, buried somewhere in deep grass there is a rusting lawn mower which I had promised to repair one day.


    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.

    (b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.


    Title: New Culture of Do-It-Yourself

    (a) New Culture of Do-it-Yourself

    1. It's age of doing things oneself

    1.1 More passion for it, less depen'ce on special'n

    1.2 Skill pervasive because of

    1.2.1 Do-it-yourself publications

    1.2.2 Tools, materials avail'e

    1.2.3 Shops offer�advisory service, assemb'g material

    1.3 Outlet for creative energy

    2. Inspiration for versat'y

    2.1 Wives

    2.2 Husbands' delusion about their versat'y

    2.3 Pride

    3. Author's experience with a mower

    3.1 Relied on tighten'g-loosen'g screws & oiling

    3.2 Dismantled and littered its chunks when failed

    3.3 Replaced snapped chain-link and re-assembled

    3.4 Wife nagged, mover dumped when failed

    Key to Abbreviations

    depen'ce = dependence

    special'n = specialization

    avail'e = availability

    assemb'g = assembling

    versat'y = versatility

    tighten'g = tightening

    loosen'g = loosening

    (b) Title: New Culture of Do-It-Yourself

    It's a do-it -yourself age. People are less dependent on others' specialization. It is because of do-it-yourself publications and availability of required tools and materials. Even shops offer advisory service and assembling materials. It is taken as an outlet for pent up creative energy. Wives, husbands' delusion and their pride inspire them to do what they really cannot do. For instance, the author dismantled his grass mower hoping to make it functional but failed. Consequently, the wife nagged him and the mover was dumped.

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