Features of Agriculture

  • Agriculture is concerned with the cultivation of land and production and processing of crops. Availability of moisture is the most important factor affecting agriculture in India. Irrigation facilities do not cover all parts of India. When farming practices totally rely on rainfall for water, it is described as rain-fed agriculture. It is further categorised into wet farming and dry farming.
  • Crop rotation is the growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession.
  • Inter cropping refers to farming of two or more crops at the same time, on the same field in a definite row pattern.
  • Mixed cropping basically refers to growing of two or more crops, simultaneously without a fixed row pattern in the same field.
  • In crop combination, crops are generally grown in combinations because they are supplementary to each other. The main aim of crop combination is to devote the maximum possible land for agricultural purposes.
  • Crop intensification refers to the number of crops raised on a field during an agricultural year.
  • India is still far behind in agricultural production, due to problems, like:
    1. Small and fragmented land holdings
    2. Shortage of good quality seeds
    3. Lack of or over use of manure, fetilisers and biocides
    4. Inadequate irrigation facilities
    5. Lack of mechanisation in agriculture
    6. Soil erosion
    7. Bad state of agricultural marketing
    8. Inadequate storage facilities inadequate transport and
    9. Scarcity of capital
    10. The population in India is increasing at a rapid pace and exerts heavy pressure on agriculture.
  • The state of agricultural productivity can be improved by the use of technology in agriculture, like:
    1. Use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) Seeds
    2. Use of Fertilisers
    3. Irrigation Techniques
    4. Farm Mechanisation
    5. Change over from Subsistence to Commercial Agriculture
  • India is the third largest producer and consumer of fertilisers in the world. The national average of consumption of fertilisers is 94.52 kg per hectare.

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  • Q1

    Name the important equipments that are used in modern agriculture.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Tractors, electric pumps, threshers, disc ploughs, power tillers, harvesters, and disc harrows are some of the equipments, which are widely used in agriculture today.

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  • Q2

    Define crop rotation.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    It involves growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession.

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  • Q3

    What do you mean by the term ‘Land Consolidation’?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Land consolidation is an effective measure to bring together the small holdings into compact units.

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  • Q4

    Name two crops, which are grown in dry farming.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Wheat and gram are grown in dry farming because they are early-maturing and drought-resistant crops.

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  • Q5

    What is India’s rank in terms of total farm output in the world?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    India ranks second worldwide in total farm output.

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