Mechanism of Indian Monsoon and Weather

  • Monsoons are experienced in the tropical areas lying roughly between 20°N and 20°S latitudes. Monsoon connotes the climate associated with seasonal reversal in the direction of winds. India’s climate is also known as ‘monsoon type’ climate. However, there is a great regional variation in the weather and climatic conditions in different parts of India.
  • For better understanding of the exact nature of Indian monsoon, we have to study it at the global level, rather than the regional level. The important aspects of the mechanism of monsoon are:
  1. Onset of monsoon
  2. Rain-bearing systems (tropical cyclones) and the relationship between the frequency and distribution of monsoon rainfall, and
  3. Break in the monsoon
  4. Retreating monsoon
  • All of the Western and Central Asia remains under the influence of westerly winds along the altitude of 9–13 kms from west to east. These winds blow across the Asian continent to the north of the Himalayas and roughly parallel to the Tibetan highlands. These winds are known as jet streams.
  • Western Cyclonic disturbance originates over the Mediterranean Sea and is brought into India by the westerly jet stream. It enters the Indian Subcontinent from the west and the north-west during the winter months. Increase in the night temperature generally indicates the arrival of these cyclonic disturbances. These cyclonic disturbances cause rainfall and snow fall in the north-western states of the Indian Subcontinent.
  • Tropical cyclones originate over the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. These cyclones have very high wind velocity and cause heavy rainfall. States of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha are hit by these cyclones.
  • The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone is a low pressure zone located at Equator where trade winds converge and therefore, air tends to ascend. The position of ITCZ shifts during the summers and winters.

To Access the full content, Please Purchase

  • Q1

    Where is the ITCZ situated at the onset of monsoon?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    At the onset of monsoon the approximate position of the ITCZ is around the Ganga Plain.

    View Answer
  • Q2

    Name the two types of trade winds.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Two types of trade winds are north east trade wind and south east trade wind.

    View Answer
  • Q3

    Who criticized the traditional theory of monsoon?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The traditional theory of monsoon was criticized by Flohn.

    View Answer
  • Q4

    Which trade wind drags the western disturbances into the Indian subcontinent?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The westerly trade winds attract the western disturbances towards the Indian Subcontinent.

    View Answer
  • Q5

    What is the direction of winds during summer season over the Indian subcontinent?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Winds move from sea towards the land during the summer season.

    View Answer