Seasons and Natural Calamity

  • According to the meteorologists, climatic conditions of India can be best described in the terms of an annual cycle of four seasons namely:
  1. The winter season or cold weather season
  2. The summer season or hot weather season
  3. The rainy season or south-west monsoon season, and
  4. The retreating monsoon season
  • The cold weather season begins in India from mid-November and stays till February. The coldest months are December and January.
  • With the movement of Sun towards the Tropic of Cancer in March, temperatures start rising in north India. The months from April to June experience summers in North India.
  • ‘Loo’ is the hot, dry and oppressing winds blowing in the plains of northern India during May and June. ‘Mango showers’ are the pre-monsoon showers. They start from the end of summer in Kerala and the coastal areas of Karnataka. The ‘blossom showers’ affect the plantation of coffee flowers in parts of Kerala and Karnataka.
  • Nor’westers are the evening thunderstorms occurring in West Bengal and Assam. These are useful for tea, jute and rice cultivation.
  • The south west monsoon winds originate in the Indian Ocean towards the end of summer season due to high pressure built in the ocean. They blow towards the low pressure area, which is formed over the Indian mainland and bring a plenty of rainfall between the months of June and September. This season is known as rainy season.
  • The retreating monsoon is associated with the occurrence of cyclonic depressions that originate over the Andaman Sea. These cyclonic depressions generally cross the eastern coasts of India and cause heavy and widespread rainfall.
  • The average annual rainfall in India is about 125 cm, but it has many spatial variations.
  • Temperature and rainfall graph is a specially designed graph that shows the seasonal distribution of temperature and rainfall of a place. It provides a glimpse of the seasonal variation of a place.
  • Drought is defined as an acute shortage of water and crop failure that results when the average rainfall is quite less than the normal. It is an abnormally dry period when there is not enough water to support agricultural, urban or environmental water needs.
  • Flood is a state of high water level that leads to temporary inundation of land. They occur in response to heavy rainfall and become a hazard when they pose threat to the life and property of people.
  • Flood forecasting is done by the Central Water Commission. It involves giving prior information regarding the occurrence of floods.

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  • Q1

    What is the formula to calculate variability of rainfall?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Variability of rainfall is calculated with the help of the following formula:

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  • Q2

    Why interior parts of the Peninsula get less rainfall?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The interior parts of the Peninsula are located in the rain-shadow zone of the Western Ghats hence, receive less rainfall.

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  • Q3

    Which coast in India receives rain during the winter?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Coromandel coast receives rain during the winter season through retreating monsoonal winds.

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  • Q4

    “Peninsular India experiences Moderate climate.” Why?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The Peninsular India has neither very hot nor very cold climate because it is surrounded by the Indian Ocean from three sides. Adjacent seas moderate the climate of the Peninsula.

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  • Q5

    Name the branch of South-west monsoon that runs parallel to the Aravalli Range.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The Bay of Bengal branch of South-west monsoon runs parallel to the Aravalli Range.

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