Industrial Regions: Location and Distribution

  • The place where primary products are processed into more refined and usable products is called an industry. Industrialisation helps in modernising agriculture, which is the backbone of our economy. It generates employment opportunities in large scale and raises the standard of living of the people. It is required to keep pace with the growing world in terms of advanced technology.
  • The two main factors, which affect the location of industries are - geographical factors and commercial factors, which are further sub-divided into many factors. The geographical factors include:
  1. Raw Material
  2. Climate
  3. Market
  4. Water Supply
  5. Energy
  6. Labour, and
  7. Transport
  • Commercial factors are further sub-divided into:
  1. Government
  2. Capital, and
  3. Banking facilities
  • Industries can be classified into various categories. On the basis of ownership, industries can be classified into:
  1. Private industries
  2. Public industries
  3. Joint-sector industries, and
  4. Co-operative industries
  • On the basis of scale of production, industries can be classified into:
  1. Large-scale industries
  2. Medium-scale industries, and
  3. Small-scale industries
  • Industries are also based on finished products and functions. These types of industries are categorised as:
  1. Basic industries
  2. Tertiary industries
  3. Consumer industries, and
  4. Ancillary industries
  • Industries are unevenly distributed because of the availability of raw material, energy resources, etc. For example, agro-based industries, like:
  1. Cotton and textile industries are concentrated in Gujarat and Maharashtra.
  2. Sugar industries are located in UP and Maharashtra.
  3. Jute textile industries are located in West Bengal.


  • Forest-based industries, like, paper, plywood, resins and lac, are concentrated in forest areas of various states. Industries related with coir, copra and fish canning are located in the coastal areas.
  • Most of the mineral-based industries, like iron and steel industry, aluminium industry, etc., are also located in the vicinity of raw materials.
  • The major industrial regions of India are:
  1. Mathura-Delhi-Saharanpur-Ambala Region
  2. Ahmedabad-Baroda Region
  3. Chhotanagpur Plateau Region
  4. Hooghly Region
  5. Mumbai-Pune Region
  6. Chennai-Coimbatore-Bengaluru Region
  7. Visakhapatnam-Guntur Region, and
  8. Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Region


  • Besides the above mentioned eight major industrial regions, India has 13 minor industrial regions and 15 industrial districts.

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  • Q1

    Give any two examples of the following industries?
    i) Agro-based industries
    ii) Tertiary industries


    i) Agro-based industries – cotton industry and sugar industry.

    ii) Tertiary industries – Transport industry and banking.

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  • Q2

    Name the industrial centre’s lies in Tamil Nadu.


    Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Salem, Chennai and Madurai.

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  • Q3

    Classify the industries on the basis of raw material used.


    Classification of industry on the bases of raw material:
    1. Agro-Based Industries
    2. Forest-Based Industries
    3. Mineral-Based Industries
    4. Industrially processed raw material-based industries.

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  • Q4

    Name the industries located in the Hooghly region.


    Jute textiles, engineering, paper and match works are the important industries located in this region.

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  • Q5

    Classify the industrial clusters on the basis of average daily factory employment.


    On the basis of average daily factory employment, industrial clusters are classified as:
    i. Major industrial region: Identified on the basis of a minimum daily factory working force of 1.5 lakh
    ii. Minor industrial region: Minimum of 25,000 working labour
    iii. Manufacturing district: working labour force is less than 25,000

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