Size and Area
- India lies in the southern part of Asia, and is separated by the Himalayas from the rest of the continent. It encompasses vast areas of diverse physical features. Geographically, India extends from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean. Different physical features found in India are mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, etc.
- Two most important climatic features in India are abundance sunshine from the tropical Sun and monsoonal rains. There are different seasons in India.
- India is considered as a subcontinent as it comprises all the characteristics of a continent.
- India extends from 8°4ʹ N to 37°6ʹ N latitude and 68°7ʹ E to 97°25ʹ E longitude. There is a variation of about 30° between these longitudes, which leads to a time difference of nearly two hours between the easternmost and the westernmost parts of the country.
- India covers 3.28 million sq km area and accounts for 2.4% of the world’s land surface. The mainland coastline of India is 6,100 km long. The coastlines of the Andaman and Nicobar, and Lakshadweep make the sea frontier 7,517 km long.
- The neighbouring countries of India are China, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Bangladesh. India is located at the head of the Indian Ocean, and therefore commands trade routes in all directions. Location, size, and economic resources make it a dominating country. Indian Ocean is named after India.
- China is the third largest country in the world, with a total area of 95.97 lakh sq km. China shares its borders with India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Mongolia, Russia, Korea, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Afghanistan. China extends from 18°N to 54°N latitude and from 74°E to 135°E longitude.
- Australia is also known as island continent as it is surrounded by oceans from all sides. It has an area of 76,86,848 sq km. It lies wholly in the Southern Hemisphere. It extends from 10°S to 44°S latitudes and from 114° E to 154°E longitudes.
Why is Meghalaya a suitable name for the eastern state of India?Marks:2
Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives world’s highest rainfall. It is situated in Meghalaya. Meghalaya is made from two words Megha + alaya means abode of rain; therefore, it is named so.
Why is eastern most state of India called Arunachal Pradesh?Marks:2
The eastern most state of India is called Arunachal Pradesh because the first rays of sun fall here. Arun in Hindi means Sun and achal means lap, so, Arun + achal means sun in the lap. Therefore, the name Arunachal is appropriate.
Why is there a difference between the duration of day and night more in Jammu & Kashmir and less in Kanyakumari?Marks:4
The difference between day and night is less near Kanyakumari and more in Jammu & Kashmir because Kanyakumari is near to the equator and sun rays are always direct on it. The rays are also felt for longer duration whereas in Jammu & Kashmir, the rays are slanting and also cover more area, so, the amount of light is less; therefore, difference between day and night is more.
Discuss the locational setting of India?Marks:3
India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30’N) passes almost halfway through the country. From south to north, India extends between 804' N and 37°6' N latitudes. From west to east, India extends between 68°7’ E and 97°25’ E longitudes.
Why is India said to be a country of vast expanse?Marks:3
India has an area of about 3.28 million sq.km. The north–south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km. The east–west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km. The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the coasts and islands present a diversity of landforms.