Migration Trends: Causes and Consequence

  • The movement of people from one place to another is known as ‘migration’. It is a very important factor in redistributing population over time and space. Migration can be permanent or temporary. When people migrate permanently from one place to another, it is known as permanent migration. Temporary migration can be annual, seasonal or daily.
  • A migrant person is one who, at a given census, was enumerated at a place other than his or her place of birth.
  • When people leave a place and migrate to some other place, it is called ‘out-migration’.
  • When people come from other places and settle down at a particular place, it is called ‘in-migration’.
  • Commutation includes movement of people between two cities, or to a city from surrounding rural areas. Normally, people commute to urban areas for earning a livelihood.
  • Sometimes people move from a village to a small town and later to a big city. Such movements are known as stepwise migration.
  • Census data contains information about migration also. Migration data was recorded in the first census of 1881.
  • Generally speaking, migration is of two types, internal migration and international migration. Internal migration is migration within the country, whereas international migration is migration out of the country, and into the country from other countries.
  • On the basis of direction of movement, internal migration can be classified into four types:
    1. Rural to Urban (R-U)
    2. Urban to Urban (U-U)
    3. Rural to Rural (R-R)
    4. Urban to Rural (U-R)
  • The Indian diaspora can be found in most of the countries of the world. The major causes of migration are:
    1. Employment
    2. Marriage
    3. Education, and
    4. Lack of Security
  • The factors, which attract people from other areas, are called ‘pull factors’. There are some factors like unemployment, which compel people to leave a place. Such factors are known as ‘push factors’.
  • Migration does also have several consequences. Some of them are:
    1. Economic Consequences
    2. Demographic Consequences
    3. Social Consequences, and
    4. Environmental Consequences

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  • Q1

    What are the criterions on which people all around the world differ from each other?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    People all around the world may vary on the basis of age, sex, literacy level, health condition, occupation, or income level.

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  • Q2

    What is the population composition?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Population composition refers to the structure of the population.

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  • Q3

    What is the general trend of migration?

    Marks:3
    Answer:

    Migration generally occurs from the less developed nations to the more developed nations in the search of employment. People also travel from the rural to urban areas in search of better employment opportunities and infrastructure facilities.

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  • Q4

    What is the natural growth rate?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Births and deaths are the natural causes of population change. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate is called the natural growth rate of a country.

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  • Q5

    What is migration?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Migration is the movement of people in and out of an area. The people moving out of a place are called emigrants and the people moving in a new area are called immigrants.

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