Mineral Resources


  • Minerals are naturally occurring homogeneous elements, possessing physical and chemical properties that make them different from each other. They are found in varied forms in nature and are part and parcel of our daily life. We can find things made of minerals everywhere. Products made from minerals range from safety pin to aeroplane, from cycle to buildings. Even the food that we eat contains minerals.
  • Minerals are broadly classified into metallic minerals and non-metallic minerals. Metallic minerals are classified as ferrous minerals and non-ferrous minerals. Non-metallic minerals are divided into organic minerals and inorganic minerals.
  • Our country is richly endowed with a variety of minerals. Diverse geological formations have favoured India in having a wide variety of minerals. Minerals are unevenly distributed in India. Most of the minerals are enclosed in older rock formations. Peninsular India is very rich in mineral resources. Northern plains of India are covered with thick alluvium. Therefore, northern India is poor in mineral resources. Most of the minerals in India are confined to three major mineral belts. These mineral belts are:
    1. North-eastern plateaus
    2. South-eastern plateaus, and
    3. North-western regions
  • Iron ore is the most widely distributed element of earth’s crust. It is the backbone of modern civilisation. It is the foundation of basic industry, i.e., iron and steel industry. 90% of iron ore is used to make steel. It is strengthened and hardened by alloying with other elements for construction, automobiles, trains and train tracks, and trucks.
  • Manganese is a black, hard, and iron-like metal. It occurs as a natural oxide. It is an important raw material for smelting of iron ore. It is used as a raw material in iron and steel industry. It makes the steel tough and rust resistant.
  • Mica is used in India since ancient times. It is considered valuable in electric and electronic industry because of its insulating properties. Mica is added to paint to provide sheen. It is also used in electronics to make capacitors and insulators.
  • Bauxite is an ore of aluminium. It is found in tertiary deposits of Peninsular India and coastal tracts. Aluminium is a light weight, strong, and rust-resistant metal. It is used in aircrafts, automobiles, rail wagons, shipping industry, coaches, household appliances, etc.

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  • Q1

    Write a detailed note on the distribution of oil resources in India.


    There are four main regions that are considered important producers of oil in India:
    North-Eastern Region:
    1. This is the oldest oil producing region of
    India and remained the sole producer for about hundred years until 1959.
    2. It extends over a vast area in the
    Upper Assam Valley, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
    3. The important fields of this region are Digboi, Naharkatiya, Moran, Rudrasagar, Galeki and Hugrijan.

    Gujarat Region:
    1. This region encompasses the Khambhat basin and
    Gujarat plain.
    2. Oil was struck in this region in 1958.
    3. The major oil fields in this region are Ankleshwar, Kalol, Nawagam, Kosamba, Kathana, Barkol, Mehasana, Sanand and Lunej.
    Mumbai High:
    1. Mumbai high is an oil bearing region about 176 km north-west of the Mumbai coast.
    2. The oil reserve here are estimated to be 80 crore tonnes.
    3. A drilling platform known as “Sagar Samrat” was set up here in 1975.
    East Coastal Region:
    1. This region extends over the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basin.
    2. Narimanam and Kovilappal are important oil fields in the Kaveri offshore area.
    3. Recent explorations have indicated the presence of vast oil reserves in the Krishna-Godavari basin of Andhra Pradesh.

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  • Q2

    On the outline map of India mark the main oil refineries.


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  • Q3

    What are the two types of minerals? 


    The two types of minerals are:

    1. Metallic Minerals

    2. Non-Metallic Minerals

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  • Q4

    Define minerals.


    Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. The term "mineral" encompasses not only the material's chemical composition but also mineral structures The study of minerals is called mineralogy.

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  • Q5

    Which mineral is known as brown diamond?


    Lignite is also known as brown diamond.

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