National Forest Policy

  • Forestry refers to creating, managing, conserving and repairing forests and various forest resources. It aims at sustainable use and development of forest resources.
  • Forest policy was first initiated by the British government of India, in 1894. It was recommended by Dr. Voelker, a German expert, who studied the role of forests. National Forest Policy of 1952 aimed at 33% forest cover for the country, which includes:
    1. 60% of forest covers in mountains.
    2. 25% of land area under forest in plains.
  • National Forest Policy was again modified in 1988. The main stress of this policy was forest protection, conservation and development.
  • The main objectives of National Forest Policy are:
    1. It aims at maintenance of environmental stability.
    2. Ecological balance should be preserved.
    3. Natural heritage of the country should be conserved.
    4. All the flora and fauna should also be conserved in these forests.
    5. Soil erosion and denudation in the catchment areas of rivers, lakes, etc. should be checked.
    6. Massive programmes of afforestation should be undertaken to achieve this purpose, etc.
  • Social forestry means forestry of the people, by the people and for the people. It refers to the management and protection of forests. It is the afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development.
  • Agro forestry involves raising of trees and agricultural crops on the same land. It enables the farmers to get food, fodder, fuel, fruit and timber from their land.
  • Community forestry involves raising of trees on public or community land, such as pastures, temple land, road-side, parks, and waste land.
  • Commercial farm forestry involves growing of trees in the field in place of food and other agricultural crops.
  • Non-commercial farm forestry involves plantations of trees by farmers on their own land for their own use and not for sale.
  • Urban forestry is related to raising and management of trees on public and private lands in and around urban centres.
  • Forests have an intricate inter-relationship with life and environment. They provide numerous advantages to economy and society. Hence, forest conservation is of vital importance to the survival and prosperity of humankind.

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  • Q1

    On whose recommendation forest policy was declared for the first time in India?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Forest policy was declared for the first time in India on the recommendation of Dr. Voelcker, a German expert who studied the role of forests vis-a vis agriculture.

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  • Q2

    What do you mean by urban forestry?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Urban forestry refers to raising and management of trees on public and privately owned lands in and around the urban areas.

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  • Q3

    When was the forest conservation act enacted and in which year amendments were made to it?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Forest conservation act was enacted in 1980 and amendments were made to it in 1988.

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  • Q4

    Define commercial farm forestry.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Commercial farm forestry means growing of trees in the fields in place of food and agricultural crops.

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  • Q5

    What is ‘Van-mahotsava’?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Van-mahotsava is an annual tree-planting festival celebrated in India. Millions of trees are planted during this event.

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