Population-Density

  • Population is defined as a group of individuals of the same species, occupying a particular space at a particular time. Population data is collected through census operation, which is held after every 10 years in India. The first census of India after independence was conducted in 1951. The population of India then was only 361 million.
  • The number of people living per unit of area is known as population density of that area. It is an important index of population, which shows the concentration of population in a particular area. Population density is calculated by dividing the total number of people residing in a particular region to the total area of that region. Population density helps in better understanding of spatial distribution of population in relation to land. Population density of India has jumped from 325 persons per sq km in 2001 to 382 persons per sq km in 2011.
  • Population density can be of two types:
  1. Arithmetic Density, and
  2. Physiological Density
  • Arithmetic density is the ratio of total population of the country to total area. It is the most common way of measuring population density.
  • Physiological density is the ratio of total population to the total cultivated area of the country. This measure of density tells us the number of people dependent on each unit of cultivated land.
  • National average of 382 persons per sq km does not give any idea of unevenness of population density between different states and union territories. A large scale variation in density of population is found from one region to other.
  • Population density in the state of Bihar is 1,102 persons per sq km, whereas it is only 17 persons per sq km in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. Population density is 11,297 persons per sq km in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, whereas it is only 46 persons per sq km in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Areas in India are sub-divided into the following categories on the basis of their population density:
    1. Areas of extremely low density
    2. Areas of low density
    3. Areas of moderate density
    4. Areas of high density, and
    5. Areas of extremely high density

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  • Q1

    What was the population of India after independence?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The population of India was only 361 million, as recorded in the population census of India, 1951.

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  • Q2

    Define ‘population’.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Population can be defined as a group of individuals of the same species, occupying a particular space at a particular time.

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  • Q3

    Which state has the highest population density in India?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Bihar, with a population density of 1,102 persons per sq km, is the most densely populated state of India.

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  • Q4

    What is the increase in population density of India during the last decade?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    There is an increase of 57 persons per sq km between the years 2001 and 2011.

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  • Q5

    Which government organisation in India collects the population data after every ten years?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The Census of India is responsible for collecting the population data in India after a period of every ten years.

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