• India is one of the most populous countries of the world. It occupies only 2.4% of the total area of the world, but supports 17.5% of the total population. This huge population of India is unevenly distributed among its states and union territories.
  • Population data all over the world is collected through census. It offers an overview of population at a particular time. It covers varied demographic, social and economic attributes of population.
  • The total population of India according to the census of 2011 is 1,210 million. Density of population is defined as the number of people residing per unit of area. Some places in India are densely populated, while others are sparse. The density of population in India is 382 persons per sq km according to the census of 2011.
  • Index of concentration is the proportion of population living in each state or union territory to the total population of India. It is a very useful method to understand the uneven nature of distribution of population.
  • The distribution of population is very uneven in India. Some places are too crowded, while the others are too deserted. The factors affecting the distribution of population are terrain, climate, soil, water bodies, mineral resources, industries, transport and urbanisation.
  • More people prefer living in plain regions rather than mountainous regions. Himalayan region cover 13% of the total land area of India, but supports only 1 to 2% of total country’s population. The Great Plains of North India cover less than one fourth of the total land area, but supports more than half of India’s population.
  • Fertile soil supports higher population while infertile soil leads to low-density of population. Northern Plains, Deccan Plateau and Coastal Plains have high population due to fertile soil.
  • The availability of water plays an important role in the concentration of population in a region. Most of the population is concentrated in the river valleys in our country.
  • The availability of rich minerals attracts people from different areas. It encourages greater prospects for industrial development for the region they are found in.

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  • Q1

    1. According to the given graph, answer the following questions.

    a. Which continent has the lowest share of population?
    b. Which continent has about 12% of the world population?
    c. Which two continents have the greatest percentage of population?
    d. Which two continents have the lowest share of population?
    e. How much percentage of the world’s population does Asia support alone?


    a. Oceania has the lowest share of population.
    b. Europe has about 12% of the world population.
    c. Asia and Africa have the greatest percentage of population.
    d. Oceania and North America are the two continents that have the lowest share of population.
    e. Asia alone supports about 61% of the world’s population.

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  • Q2

    What is the pattern of population distribution? Is population evenly distributed? How?


    The way in which the people are spread across the world’s surface is called population distribution. Population is very unevenly distributed as 90% of the world’s population lives in just 10% of the land surface. Many more people live in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere, and very few people live in high altitude areas, tropical deserts, high mountains and areas of equatorial forests. The most crowded areas are south and south east Asia, Europe and north eastern North America. Almost 3/4 of the world’s population lives in the Asia and Africa continent. Thus, we see that the population distribution is highly uneven.

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  • Q3

    On what criterions do the human resources all over the world differ?


    People all over the world differ on the basis of their sex, age and educational levels.

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  • Q4

    When was the Indian Ministry of Human Resource Development created? What is its aim?


    The Indian Ministry of Human Resource Development was created in 1985 with the aim of improving people’s skills.

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  • Q5

    Why are the human resources called the ultimate resource?


    The people are the ones who, with their demands and abilities turn natural products into resources. Healthy, educated and motivated people develop resources as per their requirements and hence are called the ultimate resource.

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