Transport : Air

•    Air transport is one of the fastest and costliest modes of transport. It is very essential for a vast country, like India, with diverse physical features and climate.
•    Air transport was launched in India between Allahabad and Naini in 1911. In 1953, air transport was nationalised. Two corporations were formed due to this, which were Air India International and Indian Airlines.
•    The national airways can further be classified into public sector and private sector. The international airways, on the other hand, are Air India and the other service providers.
•    Air India handles the foreign passenger cargo. It has a fleet of 102 aircrafts. It operates in 32 international and 62 domestic destinations and serves additional destinations through arrangements with foreign airlines.
•    The major international air routes covered by Air India are Delhi-Rome-Frankfurt, Mumbai-London, Delhi-Moscow, Kolkata-Tokyo, Kolkata-Perth, Mumbai-London, New York-Delhi-Mumbai.
•    Indian Airlines was one of the major domestic air carriers of the country. The airline was officially merged with Air India on February 27, 2011. Alliance Air, a fully owned subsidiary of Indian was renamed as Air India Regional.
•    Vayudoot Airlines was setup in 1981 to increase the air transport in the country. It provided links with remote and inaccessible areas; especially the north-eastern states.
•    Pawan Hans Helicopter Limited was established in 1985. It provides services to the petroleum sector, including ONGC, Oil India Limited and connects remote and inaccessible areas. It also provides services to certain state governments and public sector undertakings, like NTPC, GAIL and BSF.
•    The Airports Authority of India was formed in April 1995 with the merger of erstwhile International Airports Authority of India and National Airports Authority. Airport authority of India manages 125 airports, which include 18 International Airport, 7 Customs Airports, 78     Domestic Airports and 26 Civil Enclaves at defence airfields.
•    The international airports are located in Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bengaluru, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Gaya, Goa, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kochi, Kolkata, Lucknow, Kozhikode, Mumbai, Nagpur, Tiruchirapalli, Thiruvananthapuram, and Varanasi.

 

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  • Q1

    Define open sky policy and give some impacts of this policy.

    Marks:3
    Answer:

    The government introduced the open sky policy in April 1982 in order to help Indian exporters to boost their export goods and make them more competitive in the world market. According to this policy, foreign airlines or association of exports can bring any freighters to the country. It was basically an international policy concept that calls for the liberalisation of the rules and regulations of the aviation industry.

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  • Q2

    Write a short note on the Airports Authority of India (AAI).

    Marks:3
    Answer:

    The Airports Authority of India was formed on April 1, 1995, with the merger of erstwhile International Airports Authority of India and National Airports Authority. AAI has many responsibilities to fulfill. It is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic in the Indian air space. It manages all the international and domestic airports. The authority manages 18 international and 70 domestic airports, including 26 passenger terminals at defence airfields.

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  • Q3

    What problems hinder the development of air transport in India?

    Marks:3
    Answer:

    Aviation is an important section of the transport sector. The growth of the aviation sector is very important for the development of any country. In India, the development of aviation sector has been hindered by many factors. Some of the important problems hindering the growth of aviation are:

    1. Lack of trained staff to work in the aviation industry
    2. Poor performance by the public sector aviation companies
    3. Tough competition from private sector companies
    4. High input costs and lack of airports and air services in certain parts

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  • Q4

    Write a short note on airports in India.

    Marks:5
    Answer:

    India has set up a large number of airports due to the vast expanse of the country. All the airports are supervised by the Airports Authority of India. It is responsible for providing safe and efficient air traffic services and aeronautical communication services for effective control of air traffic in the Indian Air apace. The authority manages all the international and domestic airports. It has been decided to restructure the airports of Airport Authority of India. This will help in improving the managerial efficiency, bring standards of services/facilities at par with international standards and attract investments from private sector. Presently the airports at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata are being taken for this exercise. New airports have also been proposed at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Goa with private sector participation.

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  • Q5

    Describe the types of services provided by Pawan Hans Helicopter Limited.

    Marks:5
    Answer:

    Pawan Hans Limited, which was later named as Pawan Hans Helicopter Limited was set up in 1985. This organisation provides helicopter services to the petroleum sector including ONGC, Oil India Ltd. It also connects remote and inaccessible areas in the country like the north-eastern states. Along with this, it also provides services to some state governments, like, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Lakshadweep and the other public sector undertakings, like NTPC, GAIL and BSF. These helicopter services are considered the backbone of the Lakshadweep and Minicoy islands. The company is based in Delhi, but its operations are based at Juhu aerodrome. It offers air services for:

    • Off shore operations
    • Inter island transport
    • Connecting in accessible areas
    • Customs and pipeline surveillance
    • Causality and rescue work
    • Charter services
    • VIP transportation
    • Film shooting and areal photography
    • Other customised services

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