Transport : Water and Pipeline

•    A waterway is any navigable body of water. Waterways are an important mode of transport for both passenger and cargo traffic in India.
•    Water transport includes:
a.    Inland Waterways, and
b.    Sea ways
•    Inland Waterways include internal water bodies like canals, rivers, backwater and creeks, etc. At present, 5200 km of the river can be used by mechanised crafts.
•    National Waterway 1 runs from Haldia to Allahabad across the Ganges, Bhagirathi and Hooghly river systems.
•    National Waterway 2 runs between Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra River.
•    National Waterway 3 is a 168 km stretch of inland navigational route located in Kerala, and runs from Kollam to Kottapuram.
•    National Waterway 4 is a 1,095 kilometres long waterway, and connects the Indian states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and the union territory of Puducherry.
•    National Waterway 5 runs a total length of 623 km of which 91 km is within West Bengal and the remaining 532 km is in Odisha.
•    India has vast coastline of about 7,516 km. There are 12 major and 187 minor ports located on the coastline of India.
•    Mumbai Port is the natural harbour and biggest port of India located on the West coast.
•    Jawaharlal Nehru Port was established on 26th May, 1989 at Nhava Sheva Island, and developed to release the pressure from the Mumbai port.
•    Kandla Port is a tidal port located at the eastern end of the Gulf of Kutch.
•    Mormugao Port is an important port of Goa and occupies fifth position in handling the traffic.
•    New Mangalore Port is located at the southern tip of Karnataka. It mainly exports iron-ore from the Kudremukh mines.
•    Kochi Port is a natural harbour located on the coast of Kerala.
•    Kolkata Port is a riverine port located on the left bank of the Hugli River, and known as ‘Gateway of the Eastern India’.
•    Haldia Port is developed on the convergence of the Hugli and the Haldi River. This port reduces the traffic from Kolkata port.
•    Paradip Port is located on the coast of Odisha and handles the trade of iron-ore and coal along with other dry cargo.
•    Vishakhapatnam port is the deepest land locked port built on the coast of Andhra Pradesh.
•    Chennai Port is the oldest artificial harbour on the east coast of India. It handled traffic of 37,851 thousand tonnes in 2011 and has traffic handling capacity of 79.72 million tones.
•    Tuticorin port has been developed at the coast of Tamil Nadu. It handles the traffic of coal, salt, food grains, edible oils, sugar, and petroleum products.
•    Pipelines are the most convenient, efficient and economical mode for transporting liquids. First pipeline was laid in Assam to bring crude oil from Noonmati.


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  • Q1

    Name two national waterways.


    Two national waterways are:
    1. National waterway No.1- It is between Allahabad and Haldia. Bhagirathi-Hooghli River system 1620 km.
    2. National waterway No.2- Sadiya-Dhubri stretches of Brahmaputra River (891km).

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  • Q2

    Name the three major modes of transportation.


    The three major modes of transportation are:
    1. Land
    2. Water
    3. Air Transport

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  • Q3

    Define Kandla Port.


    Kandla is a seaport in Kutch District of Gujarat state in western India. Located on the Gulf of Kutch, it is one of major ports on west coast. Kandla was constructed in the 1950s as the chief seaport serving western India.

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  • Q4

    Define land locked ports.


    It is encircled by land from all sides with no water passage towards sea or ocean. Visakhapatnam port in Andhra Pradesh is a land-locked harbour, connected to the sea by a channel cut through solid rock and sand.

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  • Q5

    Define Harbour.


    It is a partially enclosed area in the sea, for example, a creek, an estury, or a sea-inlet providing shelter to the sailing ships.

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