Trends in India
• Urbanisation in India refers to the process of rapid and massive growth of urban cities, mainly as a result of influx of population due to migration. The people migrate to cities due to various facilities that urban areas offer, like:
b. Healthcare facilities
c. Peace and greenery
d. Better infrastructure facilities
e. Education facilities
f. Higher wages
g. Recreation facilities, etc.
• India has a long history of urbanisation, which is divided into different phases of history.
• First phase of urbanisation in India is traced in Indus Valley with Harappa urbanism. Cities flourished for 600 years between 2350 BC – 1750 BC. The main towns of Indus civilisation were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, Lothal, Surkotada, Rangpur, Kalibangan, Banwali, Rupar, etc.
• Towns and cities grew in two cultural streams from 600 BC onwards, i.e., Aryan civilisation in the north and Dravidian civilisation in the south. Main cities of this period were Mathura, Hastinapur, Ayodhya, Kusinagar, Vaishali, Pataliputra, Ujjain, Nagarjunakonda, Kancheepuram, Madurai, etc.
• During the Mauryan and Post-Mauryan period from 300 BC to 600 AD, towns and cities grew, in both number and size, in North and South India.
• During the Post Gupta period from 600 AD to 1000 AD, urban growth declined in North India. Later, invasion by Turks and Sultanate rule revived urban development in India.
• Important cities that flourished around 11th Century till the fall of Mughal Empire, i.e., 17th Century were Ludhiana, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Chittaurgarh, Moradabad, Agra, Ahmedabad, Indore, Pune, Bijapur, Hyderabad, Mysore, etc.
• A number of new towns and new suburbs were built by the British. Important towns of British period were:
a. Hill stations – Shimla, Mussoorie, Dehradun, Nainital, Darjeeling, Ooty and Kodaikanal.
b. Port cities – Mumbai, Panaji, Marmagao, Puducherry, Chennai and Kolkata.
c. Industrial cities – Kanpur, Dhanbad, Jamshedpur, Asansol, Bhadravati.
d. Transport cities – Bhusawal, Jalgaon and Siliguri.
e. Others – Sriganganagar, Bhilwara and Ranchi.
• There is an uneven distribution in population residing in different towns and cities. About more than half of the towns (population less than 20,000 each) support only 11.12% of urban population. One-fourth of the population (26.78%) lives in middle sized towns. These towns have been growing over the years.
• Metropolisation refers to the growth of metropolitan centres, having industrial and tertiary economic base. According to the Census of India, 2011, a metropolitan city is an urban agglomeration or a city having a population of more than one million people. Four major metropolitan cities of India are Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai.
What was the major reason behind the decline in the rate of urbanisation during 19th century in India?Marks:1
The decline in the rate of urbanisation in India during 19th century was because of industrial revolution that took place in England and also due to lack of interest shown by the British towards developing cities, other than the British cities of Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.
State the urban population of India according to the Census of 2001.Marks:1
According to the Census of India, 2001, India has an urban population of 285.35 million people, accounting for about 27.78% of the total population of the country.
Name any four cities that got flourished between 11th and 17th centuries.Marks:1
Ludhiana, Bikaner, Ahmedabad and Pune are the four cities that got flourished between 11th and 17th centuries.
Name the two major towns that came up during the Indus civilisation, but now located in Pakistan.Marks:1
Harappa and Mohanjodaro were the two major towns that came up during the Indus civilisation, but are now located in Pakistan.
What do you mean by the term “urbanisation”?Marks:1
Urbanisation is the process of rapid and massive growth of urban cities, mainly as a result of influx of population due to migration.