Sources of Irrigation

•    Agriculture is the mainstay for the economy of India. Water is the most important input for productive agriculture. Crops are dependent on water either through rainfall or irrigation. The process of supplying water to crops by artificial means, like canals, wells, tube wells, tanks, etc., from the sources of water, such as rivers, tanks, ponds or underground water is called irrigation.
•    Irrigation is the key to success for Indian agriculture as there is:
a.    Uneven Spatial distribution of Rainfall, and
b.    High Rainfall Variability
•    There is a large scale variation amongst states in irrigated areas. Over 85% of the net sown area is under irrigation in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. There is very less irrigation in northeastern states and west coast areas since they receive sufficient amount of rainfall.

•    The primitive methods of irrigation include wells, tanks and inundation canals while the modern methods of Irrigation include tube-wells, perennial canals and sprinkler irrigation.
•    In the irrigation that is done through wells, a hole is dug up in the ground to get sub-soil water. Nearly two-thirds of the total irrigated area of India is under well irrigation.
•    Tank irrigation consists of water storage developed by constructing a small bund of earth or stones built across a stream. Tanks are usually of small size and built by individual farmers.
•    Inundation canals are the canals taken out from the rivers without any regulating system at their head. These provide irrigation mainly in the rainy season when there is excessive water.
•    Tube well is a deeper well (more than 15 metres) from which water is lifted with the help of a pumping set; operated by an electric motor or diesel engine.
•    Canal irrigation is an effective source of irrigation in areas of low level relief, deep fertile soils, perennial source of water and extensive command area.
•    In sprinkler irrigation, sprinklers are set-up in fields and water is supplied by hoses from the source of water. It helps in avoiding wastage of water and ensures best utilisation of water resources.
•    In areas where canal irrigation is practiced, farmers tend to flood their fields with water to get a bumper crop for more profit, which leads to over watering of fields.
•    Intensification of canal irrigation causes a rise in the water level. It adds salts in soil profile, causes salinity and alkalinity problems.

 

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  • Q1

    .Name any three districts which are drained by Sirhind Canal of Punjab.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The three districts which area drained by Sirhind Canal of Punjab are:
    1) Patiala
    2) Sangrur
    3) Ludhiana

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  • Q2

    Name any three districts which are drained by Western Yamuna Canal.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The three districts are:
    1. Ambala
    2. Karnal
    3. Rohtak

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  • Q3

    Name the two canal projects providing water for irrigation in Karnataka.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The two canal projects providing water for irrigation in Karnataka are:
    1. Malprabha Project Canal
    2. Visveswaraya Canal

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  • Q4

    What do you understand by the term “Sprinkler Irrigation”?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    It is that type of irrigation method in arid and semi- arid areas in which sprinklers are set up in fields and water is supplied by hoses from the source of water to avoid wastage of water, ensuring best utilisation of water resources.

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  • Q5

    Name any two canals which are the main source of Irrigation in Rajasthan.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Two canals which are a main source of Irrigation in Rajasthan are:
    1. Indira Gandhi Canal
    2. Gang or Bikaner Canal

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