Water Resources

•    Water is an important natural resource, essential for the survival of living beings. This resource is not uniformly distributed over the space. Millions of people around the world are suffering due to the scarcity of water.
•    India covers 2.45% of surface area, and has 4% of water resources of the world. The total water available from precipitation in a year is about 4,000 cubic km.
•    The major sources of surface water are rivers, lakes, ponds, and tanks.
•    There are about 10,360 rivers (and tributaries) in India which are more than 1.6 kilometers in length. The total replenishable groundwater resources in the country are about 432 cubic km. The level of groundwater utilisation is relatively high in the river basins lying in the north-western region and parts of south India.
•    India has a vast indented coastline. Due to this, a number of lagoons and lakes have formed. Kerala, Odisha and West Bengal have vast surface water resources in these lagoons and lakes. Water is generally brackish in these water-bodies. It is used for fishing and irrigating certain varieties of paddy crops, coconut, etc.
•    Water is required for various sectors. Agricultural sector is one of the most dominant sectors which require water on a very large scale. Multipurpose river valley projects like the Bhakra-Nangal, Hirakud, Damodar Valley, Nagarjuna Sagar, Indira Gandhi Canal Project, etc., have been set up for this purpose.
•    Pollution of water is one of the major problems. Due to large scale industrialisation and urbanisation, water pollution is continuously increasing.
•    Water conservation means to reduce the use of fresh water, to conserve the quality and quantity of water through various methods. The need is to generate public awareness about importance of water and impacts of water pollution.
•    Watershed management refers to an efficient management and conservation of surface and ground water resources.
•    Rain water harvesting is a method to capture and store rainwater for various uses. It is a low cost and eco-friendly technique for preserving every drop of water.

 

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  • Q1

    What are the factors that contribute to the uneven distribution of ground water in India?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Factors affecting the uneven distribution of ground water in India are:
    1) Structure of rock
    2) Surface configuration
    3) Amount of rainfall

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  • Q2

    Inspite of being a ‘renewable’ resource, there is still scarcity of water in India. Why?

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    Answer:

    1) Out of the total amount of surface and ground water, only 60% can be put to use.
    2) Pollution of water also leads to scarcity.

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  • Q3

    Define water resources.

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    Answer:

    Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful for mankind like their use in agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities.

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  • Q4

    What do you mean by rainwater harvesting?

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    Answer:

    Rain water harvesting is a reservoir to capture and store rainwater for various uses. It is a low cost and eco-friendly technique for preserving every drop of water.

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  • Q5

    What do you mean by watershed management?

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    Answer:

    Watershed management refers to the efficient management and conservation of water resources, increased agricultural production and stopping of ecological degradation.

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