Federal States

  • A federation is a state in which one central government and several state governments exist side by side. The central government has authority over entire territory and all the people for specific issues. The state government has authority on fewer people, in a smaller area on issues that do not fall in the sphere of Central government’s authority.
  • Typically features of any federation are written constitution, division of powers, rigid constitution, and supremacy of constitution, independence of judiciary, dual citizenship, dual administration, bicameral legislature and equality of states.
  • Desire for unity among the people of the federating units is the first essential condition for successful working of a federation. Local solidarity and cultural affinity enables federating units to preserve their identities.
  • A federation characterized by commonness of language, race, culture and religion ought to be more efficient and effective. A federation has dual government.In it federating units agree to formally keep some areas for exclusive authority and give up other areas to a common union for governance.
  • A federal state has written constitution with rigid constitutional amendment process.To solve disputes between different governments there is an independent judiciary in a federation.Federations are suitable for large diverse countries because it gives space and system for expression and coexistence to smaller nations.And it pools resources for security and development.
  • It is essential to understand the difference between federation and confederation. Sometimes the two terms are used interchangeably. Confederation is an association of sovereign independent states. It is made by them for carrying out a definite limited objective through the performance of some mutually agreed, defined and specific functions.

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  • Q1

    Which of the following is not a feature of federal state?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Unwritten constitution

    Explanation:

    A written constitution that describes the respective spheres of authority of the central and state government is the defining feature of a federation.

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  • Q2

    Merits of federal system are…

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    all of above

    Explanation:

    Federal system democratizes the world by giving life to smaller nationalities. Smaller nationalities become economically viable due to pooling of resources and have independent administrative capacity to pursue their policies.

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  • Q3

    American federalism has which one of the following demerits?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Both a and b

    Explanation:

    Amending American constitution is so tough that only 27 amendments have been ratified till today as compared to 98 in India.

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  • Q4

    Which of the following difference between American and Indian federalism is true?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    American states can establish courts while Indian states cannot

    Explanation:

    All the three statements are true and self-explanatory.

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  • Q5

    Which of the following is not the feature of federal state?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Single administration

    Explanation:

    Unitary state ensures single uniform administration for the whole of the state. In federal states there is division of powers between the central government on the one hand and the state/provincial government on the other is an essential condition of government.

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