Rural Local Government
- Panchayati Raj is a uniform three tier structure for local government in rural areas of India. It is the government elected by the people living in a local area. The elected representatives look into the problems and the basic needs of the local people.
- The launching of Community Development Programme on 2 October 1952 set the stage for the organisation of Panchayati Raj. On 2nd October 1953 the national extension service was launched.
- At the base is the ‘Gram Panchayat’. The intermediary level is the Mandal or Panchayat Samiti and at the apex is the ZillaParishad.
- Seventy third amendment aims to deepen democracy by reservation for women and weaker sections, foster need based development by participation of representatives in planning and decision making for development, check bureaucratic arbitrariness and corruption by rural elites and state government politicians.
- Tribal communitiesof north east regions have got right over forest produce and self governance as per their traditional practices.
- Corruption, token representation, factionalism, bureaucratic encroachment, poor planning and managerial capacity, little devolution of functions, finances, lack of infrastructure and inadequate and ignorant manpower are challenges facing Panchayati raj institutions in India.
- Amending state laws to prohibit the dissolution of Panchayat bodies, conferring functions, staff and untied funds on these institutions, strengthening Gram Sabha and District planning Committee fostering a culture of dialogue amongst factions will solve key problems facing the panchayat bodies.
To make Article 40 operational, the committee that was set up in 1957 wasMarks:1
Balwant Rai Mehta.
Explanation:As a result of the recommendation of Balwant Rai Mehta committee, a three tier panchayati raj was introduced.
The 73rd Constitutional Amendment was passed byMarks:1
P.V. Narasimha Rao's government.
Explanation:P.V. Narasimha Rao's government enacted the 73rd Constitutional Amendment, which was passed by Parliament on 23rd December, 1992 and became effective on 24th April, 1993.
The Zilla Parishad meets once inMarks:1
Explanation:Its special meeting can also be held when requested in writing by 1/3rd of its members. The Chairman has to call such a special meeting within 15 days of receipt of such a request.
The first municipal corporation in India was set-up at Madras in the yearMarks:1
Explanation:A small town, George Town, which grew in the area of fort St. George in (Madras) was granted its first municipal charter in 1687 by James II. Thus, has the oldest municipal corporation in India.
The Constitution of India makes a special reference to local government inMarks:1
Directive Principles of State Policy.
Explanation:Article 40 of the Indian Constitution states, "the State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government".