Urban Local Bodies

  • History of Municipal bodies in India goes back to 1688 when Madras Municipal Corporation was established by the British. It was followed by similar bodies in Calcutta and Bombay.
  • The purpose of the 74th amendment was to revitalise local participation and representation in governance. It sought uniformity in local bodies throughout the country.
  • It provided fixed five year term and continuity of operation. Election Commission is appointed for conducting local elections of the local government. Finance Commission is appointed for the local governments.
  • Today more than Two hundred Municipal Corporations, fourteen hundred Municipal councils and over two thousand Nagar Panchayats exist in India. Municipal Corporation is the highest local government institution working in each large urban area.
  • Commissioner of the Municipal Corporation has the main task of running its administration. According to the 74th Amendment Act the Constitution provides for the establishment of the Ward Committees in the Municipal Corporation area with population of 3 lakhs and above.
  • The state government fixes the membership of each Municipal Council. . The population is the main basis for the concerned urban area.
  • Public sector undertakings in order to provide basic civic amenities to its personnel establishes township. There are no elected members. Every township has a Town Administrator.The Government can seek any report, record or information from the Municipal councils and corporations.
  • A cantonment is a place/Area where a large army establishment is located. It is a defence area and is used as an army base/station. For the maintenance and development of both civil and military area within cantonment a special local body is established. It is called the cantonment board.
  • For the administration and development of a port, a port trust is established by the government.

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  • Q1

    Due to some reasons like castism, leaders like Dr. B. R. Ambedkar were against the idea of:

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    local governments.

    Explanation:

    There was a powerful voice in the Constituent Assembly led by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, which felt that the faction and caste-ridden nature of rural society would defeat the noble purpose of local government at the rural level.

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  • Q2

    The first municipal corporation in India was set-up at Madras in the year

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    Answer:

    1687.

    Explanation:
    A small town, George Town, which grew in the area of fort St. George in (Madras) was granted its first municipal charter in 1687 by James II. Thus, has the oldest municipal corporation in India.
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  • Q3

    The maximum duration of Municipalities is

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    Answer:

    5 years.

    Explanation:
    According to the article 243U of the Indian Constitution, every Municipality, unless sooner dissolved under any law for the time being in force, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer.
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  • Q4

    The wards committees are found in:

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    Answer:

    Municipalities.

    Explanation:

    According to the article 243S of the Indian Constitution, (1) there shall be constituted Wards Committees, consisting of one or more Wards, within the territorial area of a Municipality having a population of three lakhs or more. (2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect to - (a) the composition and the territorial area of a Wards Committee.(b) the manner in which the seats in a Wards Committee shall be filled.

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  • Q5

    The top-most urban local government institution is...

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Municipal Corporation.

    Explanation:

    In India, a Municipal Corporation is a local government body that administers a city of population 200000 or more. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in.

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