History of Municipal bodies in India goes back to 1688 when Madras Municipal Corporation was established by the British. It was followed by similar bodies in Calcutta and Bombay.
The purpose of the 74th amendment was to revitalise local participation and representation in governance. It sought uniformity in local bodies throughout the country.
It provided fixed five year term and continuity of operation. Election Commission is appointed for conducting local elections of the local government. Finance Commission is appointed for the local governments.
Today more than Two hundred Municipal Corporations, fourteen hundred Municipal councils and over two thousand Nagar Panchayats exist in India. Municipal Corporation is the highest local government institution working in each large urban area.
Commissioner of the Municipal Corporation has the main task of running its administration. According to the 74th Amendment Act the Constitution provides for the establishment of the Ward Committees in the Municipal Corporation area with population of 3 lakhs and above.
The state government fixes the membership of each Municipal Council. . The population is the main basis for the concerned urban area.
Public sector undertakings in order to provide basic civic amenities to its personnel establishes township. There are no elected members. Every township has a Town Administrator.The Government can seek any report, record or information from the Municipal councils and corporations.
A cantonment is a place/Area where a large army establishment is located. It is a defence area and is used as an army base/station. For the maintenance and development of both civil and military area within cantonment a special local body is established. It is called the cantonment board.
For the administration and development of a port, a port trust is established by the government.