Reading for Comprehension

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  • Q1

    Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:
    The landslides are simply defined as the mass movement of rock, debris or earth and have to include a broad range of motions whereby falling, sliding and flowing under the influence of gravity dislodges earth material. They often take place in conjunction with earthquakes, floods and volcanoes. The Himalayan Mountain, the Northeast hill ranges and the Western Ghats and the Nilgiris experience considerable landslide activities of varying intensities.

    There are several factors, which lead to the occurrence of landslides. Seismic activity, intensity of rainfall, steep slopes, rigidity of slopes, highly weathered rock layers, soil layers formed under gravity, poor drainage these all are natural factors that cause landslides. Not only this, there are many man-made factors also which contribute to the occurrence of landslides. These are land use pattern, non-engineered construction, mining and quarrying, non-engineered excavation and deforestation which lead to soil erosion.

    Landslides are a major hazard in most mountainous and hilly regions as well as in steep river banks and coastlines. Their impact depends largely on their size and speed, the elements at risk in their path and the vulnerability of these elements. Every year landslides cause fatalities and result in large damage to infrastructure (roads, railways, pipelines, artificial reservoirs, etc.) and property (buildings, agricultural land, etc.).

    Large landslides in mountainous areas can result in landslide dams blocking river courses. These natural dams cause valley inundation upstream and can be subsequently breached by lake water pressure, hence generating deadly flash floods or debris flows downstream. Submarine and large coastal cliff landslides can trigger tsunami, as can landslides in lake and reservoir shores.

    Landslides can also affect mine waste tips and trailing dams and landfills, causing fatalities and contaminating soils and surface and ground water.

    In areas affected by landslides, these are a major source of soil erosion and sediment yield to valleys and rivers.

    However, most statistics on natural disasters underestimate the impacts from landslides as they often do not separate them from other triggering or concurrent natural hazards such as storms, floods or earthquakes.
    Q1. Give the meaning of the following as used in the passage. (4 Marks)
    a. sliding
    b. dislodges
    c. conjunction
    d. excavation

    Q 2. Give a suitable title to the Passage.
    (2 Marks)

    Q3. State any four natural and four man made causes of landslides.
    (4 Marks)

    Marks:10
    Answer:

    1.
    a. moving quickly by slipping motion
    b. removes
    c. alignment
    d. the act of digging / making hollow

    2. Landslides

    3. There are several factors, which lead to the occurrence of landslides.

    Natural Factors:
    a) Seismic activity
    b) Intense rainfall
    c) Steep slopes
    d) Highly weathered rock layers

    Man made factors:
    a) Land use pattern
    b) Non-engineered construction
    c) Mining and quarrying
    d) Deforestation leading to soil erosion.

    (Mention only four in each category)

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  • Q2

    Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:
    The complexities at business activities are increasing day-by-day. An office is a vital segment of any commercial enterprise. An office may be small or large according to the size of the concerned enterprise. In olden days, mostly the proprietors did all the jobs of the organization.

    If the work was more, two or three persons were to be appointed. They sat in small rooms and worked in poorly lit and congested places. There were no modern office amenities like present days, clerks were found copying letters tiresomely, turning leather bound registers etc.

    Since the typewriters had not come into general use, most of the office work had to be performed manually and clerks would be found spending most of their time in copying letters for dispatch to customers. All the internal and external communications were performed through human agency. The telephones and intercom systems were not in general use. The proprietor of a business would be found sitting in the office room and supervising the office work. In those days, businessmen were interested in maximizing profits through two important profit centers, i.e. production and marketing.

    Office activities have undergone vast changes in the last few decades. The world has witnessed vast developments and advances in the field of science, technology, industrialization, transport, communication etc.

    A well organized office makes it possible for the management to plan its operations intelligently, put its plans into effect accurately, follow their progress currently, determine their effectiveness promptly, apprise their result without delay and co-ordinate all the activities of the business.

    When it is taken as a function, it (office) may direct, control and coordinate the office work wherever it is done and whosoever does it. Here it may be noted that in the modern times, offices are developed on scientific principles and their management and administration is in the hands of qualified and trained managerial personnel.
    Q1. Give the meaning of the following words as used in the passage. (4 Marks)
    a. vital
    b. proprietors
    c. promptly
    d. vast

    Q2. Give a suitable title to the Passage.
    (2 Marks)

    Q3. State any four benefits of a modern office.
    (4 Marks)

    Marks:10
    Answer:

    1 a. essential
    b. owners
    c. immediately
    d. immense

    2. Modern Office

    3. A well organized office makes it possible for the management to
    i) plan its operations intelligently
    ii) put its plans into effect accurately
    iii) follow their progress currently
    iv) determine their effectiveness promptly
    v) apprise their result without delay and
    vi) co-ordinate all the activities of the business.

    (Mention any four)

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  • Q3

    Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:
    Corruption in the Indian society has prevailed from time immemorial in one form or the other. The basic inception of corruption started with our opportunistic leaders who have already done greater damage to our nation. People who work on right principles are unrecognized and considered to be foolish in the modern society. Corruption in India is a result of the connection between bureaucrats, politicians and criminals. It has become something respectable in India, because respectable people are involved in it. Corruptions like less weighing of products, adulteration in edible items, and bribery of various kinds are incessantly prevailing in the society.

    In today’s scenario, if a person wants a government job he has to pay lakhs of rupees to the higher officials irrespective of satisfying all the eligibility criteria. In every office one has either to give money to the employee concerned or arrange for some sources to get his work done. There is adulteration and duplicate weighing of products in Food and Civil Supplies Department by unscrupulous workers who cheat the consumers by playing with their health and lives. In the assessment of property tax, the officers charge money even if the house is built properly according to the Government rules and regulations.

    Political corruption is the worst in India. The major cause of concern is that corruption is weakening the political body and damaging the supreme importance of the law governing the society. Elections in many parts of the country have become associated with a host of criminal activities. Threatening voters to vote for a particular candidate or physically prevent voters from going in to the polling booth – especially weaker sections of the society like tribal, dalit and rural women, occurs frequently in several parts of the country. Recently, the Government increased the salary of the M.Ps from Rs.16,000 to Rs.50,000, that is 300% increase to the existing salary. But many of them are unhappy with this rise and want the Government to increase the salary to a higher extent. This clearly shows how the politicians are in constant thirst for monetary benefits and not caring about the welfare of the people. Tax evasion is one of the most popular forms of corruption. It is mostly practiced by Government officials and politicians who lead to the accumulation of black money which in turn spoils the morale of the people.
    Q1. Give the meaning of the following words as used in the passage. (4 Marks)

    a. adulteration
    b. incessantly
    c. unscrupulous
    d. accumulation
    Q 2. Give a suitable title to the Passage. (2 Marks)
    Q3. ‘Elections in many parts of the country have become associated with a host of criminal activities’. Elaborate. (4 Marks)

    Marks:10
    Answer:

    1.
    a. degrading the quality
    b. without stopping
    c. dishonest
    d. collecting together of things

    2. Corruption in the Indian Society

    3. Elections in many parts of the country have become associated with a host of criminal activities. Threatening voters to vote for a particular candidate or physically prevent voters from going in to the polling booth – especially weaker sections of the society like tribal, dalit and rural women, occurs frequently in several parts of the country.

    View Answer