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  • Q1

    Make notes of the following passage in a proper format. Prepare a summary based on the notes and give a proper title.

    Scientists all over the world are making predictions about the ill effects of Global warming and connecting some of the events that have taken place in the past few decades as an alarm of global warming. The effect of global warming is increasing the average temperature of the earth. A rise in earth’s temperatures can in turn root to other alterations in the ecology, including an increasing sea level and modifying the quantity and pattern of rainfall. These modifications may boost the occurrence of severe climatic events, such as floods, famines, heat waves, tornados, and twisters. There are a number of species that have a threat of disappearing. As an effect of global warming various new diseases have emerged lately. The marine life is also very sensitive to the increase in temperatures. It is expected that many species will die off or become extinct due to the increase in the temperatures of the water, whereas various other species, which prefer warmer waters, will increase tremendously.




    1. Ill effects of global warming

    1.1. Predictions

    1.2. Increase of temperature on Earth

    1.3. Increase of sea level

    1.4. Climatic changes

    1.5. Emergence of new diseases

    1.6. Extinction of various species

    1.7. Biological imbalance


    Effects of Global Warming

    Scientists predict the ill effects of Global Warming. The temperature and the sea level will increase. There will be adverse climatic changes. It will cause ecological imbalance as some species will disappear and some other species that prefer warm weather will increase tremendously.

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  • Q2

    Make notes of the following passage in a proper format. Prepare a summary based on the notes and give a proper title.

    Corporal punishment in school is the use of torture, inhuman treatment or punishment causing pain or injury to penalize for an offence such as misbehavior. Such punishments are often used by teachers in schools to enforce discipline among children.

    Despite the persistent efforts of various NGOs and social activists against corporal punishments, news of students being beaten to death by teachers is not a novelty. It is a clear breach of human rights, which deteriorates children’s dignity and physical integrity.

    Reasons for Opposing Corporal Punishment in Schools is due to the reports which say that students are made to run on the school field on a hot summer afternoon, or made to stand or kneel for long hours in the sun. They are also beaten up with scales on the knuckles or other vulnerable body parts.

    These are but a few reasons for opposing corporal punishment in schools:

    • To combat the promotion of violent culture and insensitivity towards children.

    • To prevent violation of human rights and the consequent mental and physical injuries.

    • To prevent the development of feelings of fear, hurt and anxiety in children's sensitive minds, which may lead to unusual or violent behavior in the future?

    • To prevent the humiliation, torture or insult of a child, which may adversely affect his self-esteem?

    • To protect the rights of children from the minority, poor or backward communities, as these children are victimized more than children from affluent families.



    1. Corporal Punishment

    1.1. Use of torture

    1.2. Used by teachers for discipline

    2. Efforts to eradicate the practice

    2.1. NGOs and social activists

    2.2. Breach of human rights

    3. Reasons for opposing

    3.1. To end insensitivity

    3.2. To prevent violation of human rights

    3.3. To prevent insecurity feeling

    3.4. To prevent torture that may adversely affect self-esteem

    3.5. To protect the rights of children


    Corporal Punishment

    Corporal punishment in schools is torture of students as punishment to induce discipline. Despite constant efforts by various agencies to eradicate this practice it is still prevalent. It is a breach of human rights. We should oppose this practice in order to fight insensitivity towards children, to prevent violation of human rights, insecurity feelings in children, torture that adversely affect their self-esteem and to protect the rights of the children.

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  • Q3

    Make notes of the following passage in a proper format. Give a key to the abbreviations within a box. Prepare a summary based on the notes and give a proper title.

    Have you ever thought about the most important activity at your work place? The answer would be communication. It is an activity which consumes most of the time of an individual. So, it is important to make these communications effective so that it takes lesser time of the receiver.

    The purpose of oral communication is aimed to elicit immediate and desired response. Written communication is to facilitate informed decisions and actions. Thus, while the objective of oral communication is to earn an Audience, written is to earn a Reader.

    An effective written communication involves better structure, language, tone, style, jargons and spelling. In case of oral communication, there is less time to think, but you can still clear the doubts whereas, in written communication, there is more time to think before you write, but the doubts remain. Without proper communication nothing much would happen in an organisation. Good communication oils the wheels of activity in an organisation and facilitates action.



    1. Comn.

    1.1. Most imp. activity

    2. Oral and written comn.

    2.1. Oral com. for immediate response - audience

    2.2. Written com. for informed decisions - reader

    3. Effective written comn.

    3.1. Structure, language, style, etc.

    3.2. Time to think

    3.3. Good comn. facilitates action

    Key to abbreviations

    Comn. – communication

    Imp. – important

    etc. - et cetera



    Communication is the most important activity in a workplace. There are two types of communication: oral and written. Oral communication elicits immediate response from the audience. Written communication gives the writer time to think and involves a structure, style, language, etc. Good communication facilitates action.

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  • Q4

    Make notes of the following passage in a proper format. Give a key to the abbreviations within a box. Prepare a summary based on the notes and give a proper title.

    South Africa plays an important role in Wildlife Conservation. Here people have different religions with their own gods. They think that different animals are related to different gods, which ensure their conservation. The Wildlife means all organisms living in their natural habitat.

    In an ecosystem, all the species are interrelated. If the number of a particular species increases or decreases, whole ecosystem is disturbed. The Wildlife balances population and maintains food chain and natural cycle.

    The Wildlife is conserved by conservation of forests and at present by latest gene technologies. Deforestation leads to soil erosion, drought, floods and other difficulties. Man has a responsibility for conservation of Wildlife with help of In-situ and Ex-situ conservation.

    In-situ conservation is primarily related to the natural biodiversity within the evolutionary ecosystems of the original habitat or natural environment. It includes national parks sanctuaries, biosphere reserves. ex-situ conservation is outside their habitats by perpetuating sample populations in genetic resource centers, zoo, botanical gardens, culture collection, gene pools, etc.



    1. Wl csvt

    1.1. Animals related to gods

    1.2. Wl - organisms in natural habitat

    2. Interrelation of species

    2.1. Wl balance

    2.2. Maintenance of food chain

    3. Wl csvt

    3.1. Csvt of forests

    3.2. Effects of deforestation

    4. In-situ and Ex-situ csvt

    4.1. In-situ - preservation of natural biodiversity

    4.2. National parks, reserves

    4.3. Ex-situ - genetic resource centers, zoo, botanical gardens, etc.

    Key to Abbreviations

    Wl – Wildlife

    Csvt - conservation


    Wildlife Conservation

    Relating various animals with gods ensures their conservation. Wildlife refers to animals living in their natural habitat. Wildlife balances an ecosystem which maintains the natural cycle (food chain). Wildlife is conserved by maintaining forests. Deforestation is a threat to conservation of wildlife. In-situ conservation is conserving the natural biodiversity. Ex-situ conservation is protecting the wildlife in artificial habitats like zoos, botanical gardens, etc.

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  • Q5

    Make notes of the following passage in a proper format. Prepare a summary based on the notes and give a proper title.

    The word Progeria comes from the Greek progeros meaning 'prematurely old'. Progeria is an extremely rare, fatal genetic condition. Progeria affects children and gives them an appearance of accelerated aging.

    Progeria appears to affect children of all races equally. Children with Progeria are born looking healthy. When they are about 10 to 24 months old, features of accelerated aging start to appear.

    Although they may come from varying ethnic backgrounds, children with Progeria have a surprisingly similar appearance. Progeria patients generally die between the ages of 8 and 21 - with the average age being 13.

    90% of children with Progeria have a mutation on the gene that encodes Lamin A, a protein that holds the nucleus of the cell together. It is believed that the defective Lamin A protein makes the nucleus unstable. This instability seems to lead to the process of premature aging among Progeria patients. Experts do not believe that Progeria is hereditary. They say it is due to a rare gene change which happens purely by chance.



    1. Progeria - meaning and definition

    1.1. From Greek progeros

    1.2. Genetic condition

    1.3. Affects children

    1.3. Accelerated aging

    2. Symptoms

    2.1. Born healthy

    2.2. Dies between 8 - 21

    3. Cause

    3.1. Gene mutation

    3.2. Defective Lamin A protein

    3.3. Non-hereditary

    3.4. By chance



    The word Progeria comes from Greek progeros. It is rare genetic condition causing premature aging in children. Progeria patients die between 8 - 21 years. It is caused by a mutation of the gene that encodes Lamin A protein. Defective Lamin A leads to premature aging. The disease occurs purely by chance.

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