Agricultural Practices and Organic Farming

Crops are the same type of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale. The basic agricultural practices for crop production are soil preparation, sowing, adding manure and fertilisers, irrigation, protection from weeds, harvesting and storage.

Sowing is the process of planting seeds in soil.

Soil is replenished by adding either manures or fertilisers.

Water is supplied to crops for proper growth. Supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation. Sprinkler system and drip system are two modern methods of irrigation.

Weeds are the undesirable plants which grow along with crops. It is necessary to remove weeds as they affect the growth of crop plants by competing for water, nutrients, space and light.

Harvesting is the process of cutting mature crops from the fields. After this, grain seeds are needed to be separated from the chaff by the methods of threshing and winnowing.

Storage is important step that is done after harvesting. It is done to protect the crops from moisture, insects, rats and micro-organisms.

Organic farmingis the practice of crop cultivation without the use of chemical fertilisers or pesticides. It uses eco- friendly agricultural practices like crop rotation, usage of green manures and composts.

The term ‘Green Revolution’ was widely used in the late 60s and early 70s.It was a great movement that encouraged agricultural productivity.

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  • Q1

    Give suitable term for the following:
    i) A seed borne plant disease caused by microorganisms.
    ii) Process of removal of unwanted plants from the crop fields.
    iii) Method of sowing seeds with hands.
    iv) Process of beating out grains from the harvested crop plant.
    v) Example of commonly used pesticide.


    i) Ergot of bajra
    ii) Weeding
    iii) Broadcasting
    iv) Thrashing
    v) BHC (gammaxene)

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  • Q2

    What are the different methods of irrigation?
    Give one point difference between drip and sprinkler irrigation methods.


    Irrigation is mainly done by traditional and modern methods. Traditionally irrigation can be done by:
    i) Canal irrigation
    ii) Furrow irrigation

    Modern method includes
    i) Drip irrigation
    ii) Sprinkler irrigation

    Sprinkler irrigation

    Drip Irrigation

    Pumping of water through nozzles and spraying it over soil

    Water is delivered drop by drop directly at the base of each plant

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  • Q3

    Differentiate between crop rotation and mixed cultivation.


    Crop Rotation

    Mixed Cultivation

    Practice of growing two different crops alternately in the same field

    Practice of growing two or more different crops in the same field at the same time

    For example, wheat after pea (leguminous plant) and vice-versa

    For example, groundnut and cotton crops.

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  • Q4

    Give the advantages of manure over chemical fertiliser.



    Chemical Fertiliers

    Natural substance obtained from waste decomposition

    Chemical substances made in factories

    No change in soil

    Alters the nature of soil making it too alkaline or acidic

    For example, organic wastes like plant and animal wastes

    For example, sodium nitrate, urea

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  • Q5

    Give one example of each:
    i) High Yield Variety (HYV) of wheat
    ii) High Yield Variety of rice


    i) HYV of wheat is Hira-moti
    ii) HYV of rice is Pusa-205

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