Importance of Bacteria and Fungi in Food Industry

Organisms that cannot be seen through the naked eyes are known as microorganisms. The branch of science that deals with the study of microbes is known as microbiology. Food microbiology deals with the production, contamination and spoilage of food products by microorganisms.

Microbes are used to prepare curd, bread, beverages, cheese, etc.

Lactobacillus produces lactic acid, which causes the curdling of milk.The nutritional value of milk improves when it is converted into curd. The bacteria used for curdling of milk are collectively known as Lactic Acid Bacteria or LAB.

Cheese contains high amount of protein, some fat, calcium and phosphorus along with different vitamins. The taste of cheese depends on the microbe that is used to make it.

Fungi are other group of organisms that include yeast and molds and play a major role in food industry.

Mushrooms are commonly found on wet rotten wood, trunk of trees, damp humus rich soil, etc.The structure of mushroom comprises of two main parts; the aerial part or the fruiting body and the sub-terranean part or the mycelium.

Fermentation is the conversion of sugar into carbon dioxide and alcohol by anaerobic microorganisms. Fermented products are wine, beer, whisky, rum, etc.

Yeast is used in baking to produce the carbon dioxide that inflates dough and batter. It is used at commercial level to make bread.

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  • Q1

    On an educational tour to Mother Dairy, I saw workers adding Lactobacillus culture to milk because it

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    multiplies and promotes the formation of curd.

    Explanation:

    Lactobacillus is a bacterium that converts milk into curd. It multiplies in the milk and converts it into curd.

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  • Q2

    The micro-organism used in the preparation of idli, dosa, bread, etc., is ______

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    yeast.

    Explanation:

    Yeast helps in the fermentation of the dough for bread etc.

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  • Q3

    Yeast is widely used for making:

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Bread

    Explanation:

    Yeast is widely used in the baking industry for making breads, pastries and cakes. Curd is prepared with the help of bacterium Lactobacillus.

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  • Q4

    The organism which is responsible for the conversion of sugar into alcohol:

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Yeast

    Explanation:

    Yeasts act upon fruits and fruit juices, which contain sugar. By the process of fermentation they produce ethyl alcohol and large quantity of carbon-di-oxide.

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  • Q5

    All micro-organisms are ______.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    not always harmful

    Explanation:

    Some harmful micro-organisms are responsible for causing dreadful diseases like tetanus, malaria, sleeping - sickness, etc. While some other benefits us, they are used in preparation of pickles, cheese, curd, bread etc. Some are used as fertilisers and some other helps to reduce pollution by acting on sewage.

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