Communicable Disease

Communicable diseases are the infections that are caused by pathogens and spread by means of contaminated air, water, food, wounds, direct contact, sexual contact, vectors, etc.

Influenza is a communicable disease caused by myxovirus, measles is caused by paramyxovirus,malaria is caused by Plasmodium,dengue is caused by dengue virus,chikangunya is caused by chikangunya virus.
We can prevent dengue,malaria and chikangunya by preventing ourselves from mosquito bites that can be achieved by personal protection and keeping the environment clean.

AIDS is caused by HIV or human immunodeficiency virus. It weakens the human immune system and ultimately leads to death.
Disease-carrier or vector is an organism, such as a mosquito or tick that acts as an agent or intermediate carrier of disease causing microorganisms from one host to another.Mosquitoes like Anopheles causes malaria, Culex causes filariasis and Aedes is responsible for yellow fever, dengue, and chikangunya. Louse is responsible for epidemic typhus. Red flea causes Bubonic plague. Housefly is responsible for diseases like typhoid and cholera. Sandfly causes dysentery. Tse-tse fly causes Kala- azar and sleeping sickness.

Our body’s defence system helps to fight against several diseases and hence we do not fall ill frequently. Beside natural defences, immunisation and vaccination are important measures to prevent diseases.

The body’s ability to resist the infections is known as the immunity. Immunity can be of two types; inherited immunity and acquired immunity. Inherited immunity refers to the type of immunity in which antibodies are present in our body since birth and provide immunity against specific diseases till a few months after birth.In acquired immunity, immunity is acquired through immunisation.
Immunisation is the practice of artificially introducing dead or weakened microbes into the body in order to develop immunity (resistance) to particular diseases.

The practice of giving protection against a disease is known as prophylaxis and the substance that is introduced into the body is known as vaccine.Diseases that can be prevented by vaccination are Cholera, Tuberculosis, Smallpox, Tetanus, Polio, Hepatitis – B, etc.

Vaccines can be given orally and via injections.

A particular vaccine is given at a particular age. This is called immunisation schedule. Vaccines may be prepared throughkilled germs, living weakened germs, living germsand toxins (toxoids).

 

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  • Q1

    DPT stands for ______.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus

    Explanation:

    DPT vaccine is given for diseases diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus at the age of 3- 12 months through injection.

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  • Q2

    Vaccine is available for which of the following diseases?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Measles

    Explanation:

    We can prevent measles by vaccination and staying away from infected person. A child is vaccinated for measles at 9- 15 months.

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  • Q3

    The causative agent for malaria is:

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Plasmodium

    Explanation:

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan Plasmodium.

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  • Q4

    TAB vaccine is prepared through:

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Killed germs

    Explanation:

    TAB vaccine is prepared through killed germs. TAB stands for typhoid, paratyphoid A and B.

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  • Q5

    Disease causing organisms are called

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Pathogens

    Explanation:

    Disease causing organisms are called pathogens.Pathogens can be bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungi etc.

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