Preventive Measures

First aid is the immediate care given to the patients at the time of emergency.First –aid kit should be always available in each house, school and office.A first–aid kit can be prepared at home by collecting steriliased cotton, bandages, scissors, scalpel, blade,torch, match box, candle,bottle of antiseptic,pins, forceps,thread, cord, pain killer tablets, sprays and aspirin.First aid can be given at the time of deep cut, bleeding, bruises, eye injury, burns, fainting, animal bite, drowning, fractures, etc.

In deep cut, first–aid kit is used to avoid further bleeding. Treatment for severe bleeding includes pressure on wound, pressure on arteries that carry blood to wound and use of tourniquet.

Nose bleeding is the sudden dropping of blood from the nose.When the nose of the person bleeds, he should be allowed to rest with his head up.

Dark bluish-black areas of injury are called bruises.After injury, tissue and blood vessels under the skin get ruptured.Blood from these tissues ooze out into the surrounding area thus causing bruises and swelling.Ice packs are used in such cases for relief.
In case of eye injury, do not rub eyes with hand. Sprinkle clean water and wash the eyes properly.

Depending upon the severity, burns are of three types:first degree burn, second degree burn andthird degree burn.First degree burns are characterised by reddening of top layer of the skin.Second degree burns are characterised by damaged superficial dermis layer of skin that causes blisters.In third degree burns, the epidermis and the dermis layers of skin are damaged causing white or charred appearance.In case of first and second degree burns, pour some cool water over the burn and then apply the burn cream. In third degree burns, cover the burn immediately with a thick, dry, sterile dressing.

If a Scorpion or snake bites, squeeze out some blood from the bitten part. Tie a tight band above the bitten part. This will prevent the spread and upward flow of poisonous blood in the body.

In case of bee or wasp sting, pull out the sting, if possible.Press the wound to squeeze out the poisonous blood and apply alkali like baking soda.

In case of swallowing poison, immediately call for medical help.

In case of a fracture or broken bones, lay the injured person comfortably. Loosen the clothes around the injured area and tie a bandage or a sling around the neck in case of an arm injury.

 

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  • Q1

    Prolonged use of tourniquet may cause ______.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    gangrene

    Explanation:

    Prolonged use of tourniquet should be avoided as it can cause gangrene (tissue death).

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  • Q2

    Tourniquet is given in case of:

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Bleeding

    Explanation:

    Tourniquet is a device that is used to check bleeding. In case of an emergency, it can be made from cloth and stick.

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  • Q3

    Which of the following is true for first aid of unconsciousness?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Loosen the clothes for proper breathing.

    Explanation:

    Lay the unconscious person comfortably. Loosen the clothes for proper breathing and open the doors and windows of the room for proper fresh air.

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  • Q4

    The dark bluish-black area of injuries is called

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    bruise.

    Explanation:

    The dark bluish-black area of injuries is called bruise. After injury, tissues and blood vessels under the skin get ruptured.

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  • Q5

    ______ is the immediate care given to the patients at the time of emergency.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    First aid

    Explanation:

    First aid prevents further damage till the patient is taken to a doctor.

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