Blood Grouping

•    Karl Landsteiner identified different types of blood groups in humans, which made blood transfusion much safer.The four major types of blood groups are A, B, AB and O.
•    Antigens are the substances that are foreign to the body’sdefence system, i.e., immune system. Antibodies surround the antigen and prevent its entry into the body cells.
•    RBCs express certain antigenic substances on their surface, which help to divide the blood into A, B, AB and O groups.
•    The individuals who express antigen A on the surface of their RBCs are said to have blood group A. They have anti-B antibodies in their blood plasma.
•    People who express antigen B on the surface of their RBCs are said to have blood group B. They have anti-A antibodies in their blood plasma.
•    Some people express both antigen A and antigen B on the surface of their RBCs. These individuals belong to blood group AB. They neither have anti-A, nor have anti-B antibodies in their blood plasma.
•    Majority of people have RBCs, which neither express antigen A, nor antigen B on their surface. Such people have blood group O. They have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their blood plasma.
•    In addition to the ABO blood grouping system, another major system of blood grouping is the presence or absence of Rh antigen. Rh factor is a special factor that was first found in Rhesus monkey. A person having Rh factor is called Rh positive.
•    Therefore, a person expressing both antigen A and Rh factor is called A positive, while the person having only antigen A is considered as A negative.
•    The incompatibility of Rh antigen can prove to be dangerous.
•    Transfer of blood or its components into another person’s blood stream has been carried out for more than 100 years. Blood transfusion is the transfer of blood from the donor to the recipient.
•    During blood transfusion, if recipient’s body does not recognise donor’s RBC as its own, it results in clumping or sticking of the RBC’s together; leading to the blockage of blood vessels. This is threatening to the recipient’s life.
•    A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample. It is used to determine health condition or diagnose diseases. Diabetes and HIV infections are detected by blood test.
•    AIDS is the condition in which body’sdefence or immunesystem fails to fight against any antigen, resulting in the life threatening infection. HIV infection occurs due to thetransfusion of infected blood or by the use of infected syringe.

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  • Q1

    Name the scientist who discovered human blood groups.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Karl Landsteiner identified different types of blood groups in humans.

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  • Q2

    Which blood type is compatible for the transfusion in an A–(ve) individual?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    An A-(ve) individual can only receive blood from another A-(ve) individual.

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  • Q3

    A person with blood group A has which type of antigen on its RBC’s?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    A person with blood group A has antigen A on its RBC’s.

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  • Q4

    Name the types of blood groups in ABO system.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Blood groups in the ABO system are A, B, AB and O.

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  • Q5

    Name the two types of blood grouping systems.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The two types of blood grouping systems are ABO system and Rh system.

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