Endocrine System

•    The endocrine system of our body helps in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, sexual function, etc.
•    The two types of glands are present in our body are:
•    Exocrine glands: These glands have ducts.
•    Endocrine glands: These glands do not have ducts.
•    Endocrine system consists of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete.  It is made up of ductless glands.  
•    Exocrine glands secrete chemical substances known as enzymes, which are delivered to the specific locations through ducts.
•    The human endocrine system consists of nine endocrine glands.These glands secrete thechemical substances, called hormones.
•    The endocrine glands directly pour hormones into the blood.  
•    Pituitary gland is a small, pink colouredand pea shaped gland present at the base of the brain. It is also known as the master gland and it secretes the growth regulating hormones.
•    Under- secretion of growth hormone leads to dwarfism, while over-secretion of this hormone causes gigantism.
•    Thyroid gland is brownish–red coloured, bi-lobed and butterfly shaped gland. It is the largest endocrine gland which secretes thyroxine hormone, which regulates the metabolic rate.
•    Under- secretion of thyroxine hormone leads to goitre, cretinism and myxedema, while over-secretion of this hormone causes enlargement of gland, increased rate of metabolism, increased heart beat, etc.
•    Adrenal glands are a pair of yellowish, tricon shaped glands located on the upper part of each kidney. They secrete adrenaline and corticosteroid hormones and are also known as the glands of emergency.
•    Pancreas is located below the stomach and secretes the insulin hormone. Insulin helps in the metabolism of glucose in the body.
•    Under-secretion of insulin causes diabetes.

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  • Q1

    The hormones secreted at puberty in males and females are

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    testosterone and estrogens respectively.

    Explanation:

    Hormones secreted at puberty are testosterone in males and estrogens in females. These hormones are responsible for the functioning of reproductive system, gamete formation and development of secondary sexual characteristics.

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  • Q2

    Pitutary gland is located in the:

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    brain.

    Explanation:

    Pituitary gland is located in the forebrain of humans. Its hormones play regulatory role.

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  • Q3

    Adrenal glands are located above

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    kidneys.

    Explanation:

    In mammals, the adrenal glands also known as suprarenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates their position.

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  • Q4

    The coordination by chemicals is brought about by the

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    endocrine system.

    Explanation:

    The control and coordination of the different body functions are done with the help of the endocrine system. This system exerts chemical control over the activities. These chemicals are secreted from organs, called endocrine glands.

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  • Q5

    The hormonal signals elicit response in

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    specific cells.

    Explanation:

    The hormones bind only with their specific receptors on the cell membrane to bring out changes in the cell metabolism. This binding starts a cascade of reactions, which brings out desired changes.

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