Sexual Reproduction

Reproduction is the process by which living organisms produce the organisms of their own kind.Reproduction is of two types; asexual and sexual reproduction.

In case of asexual reproduction, only one parent is involved and the offspring are identical to the parent. In sexual reproduction, both the parents are required to produce an offspring.
Flowers are the reproductive organ of plants.

A typical flower has four whorls, outer two whorls consist of accessory organs and inner two whorls consist of essential organs. The accessory organs consist of sepals and petals also known as calyx and corolla, respectively. The essential organs are stamens or micro-sporophylls which form the androecium that is the male reproductive organ of the flower and the carpels or mega-sporophylls which form the gynoecium, i.e., the female reproductive organ of the flower.

The stamen is a cylindrical stalk-like structure which consists of proximal sterile part, called the filament, and a distal fertile part, an anther.

Stamens produce small structures called pollens. Pollen grains are very minute, dust-like particles. They are of various shapes and sizes and are specific to a plant.

The carpel is divided into a proximal ovule bearing part known as the ovary, a distal pollen receptive part known as the stigma and a median sterile part called the style.

There are two types of flowers, namely, unisexual flower and bisexual flower. Flowers that have either of the two reproductive parts in them are known as unisexual flowers. Flowers that have both the reproductive parts in them are known as bisexual flowers.

When the pollen grains are released from the anther and land on the stigma of a flower, pollination occurs.

Pollination is of two types, namely, self-pollination and cross pollination.

Pollination is facilitated through pollinating agents such as wind, water, insects and animals.

After pollination, fertilisation occurs.

Most mammals including humans reproduce sexually.Female reproductive system consists of fallopian tubes, uterus, ovary, cervix and vagina. The ovary produces female gametes called ova or eggs.

Male reproductive system consists of testes, vas deferens, penis and urethra.Male reproductive system is responsible for production and release of sperms, the male gametes.

An egg and a sperm fertilises to form a zygote, which undergoes developmental changes and form a baby.

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  • Q1

    Pollinators get attracted toward the flowers as they possess

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    coloured petals

    Explanation:

    The coloured petals attract the pollinators that help in the process of pollination.

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  • Q2

    Male reproductive part of a flower contains round-shaped structure at its tip. This structure is known as

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    anther

    Explanation:

    Anther is the part of stamen that contains pollens in it.

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  • Q3

    The fertile parts of a flower are

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    stamen and carpel

    Explanation:

    Stamen and carpel are the fertile parts of a flower. Stamen is a male reproductive part and carpel is the female reproductive part.

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  • Q4

    If we remove the carpel of a flower, it will result into

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    no fertilisation

    Explanation:

    This is because carpel is the female reproductive unit of the flower. If it gets removed, fertilisation will not occur in plant.

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  • Q5

    Identify the labelled part of the given image.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Uterus

    Explanation:

    It is a hollow muscular organ of the female reproductive system, which is responsible for the development of the embryo and fetus during pregnancy.

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