Division, Location and Size

  • The official name of India is the Republic of India. India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area and second largest in terms of population. The sub-continent of Asia is one unit. Countries that make up the Indian sub-continent are India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
  • The great mountain wall is formed by the Himalayas in the north of India. Himalayas is a storehouse of water. Many mighty rivers like the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Indus emerge from the Himalayas. Water is used for irrigation of fields and for generating hydroelectricity.
  • The great Indian plain is considered a storehouse of grains. This plain feeds the largest proportion of Indian population. A wide range of agricultural raw materials for industries are also produced in the Northern Plains.
  • The great peninsular plateau is considered a storehouse of minerals. Minerals provide the basis of modern industry in India. Important minerals found in the peninsular plateau are iron ore, coal and manganese.


  • India is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories. The basis of such division is geography, population, culture, administrative convenience, etc. The 29th State of India is carved out the state of Andhra Pradesh and is named Telangana. A large area of the state of Rajasthan covers the Great Indian Desert.
  • India is centrally located in South Asia. It has an area of 3.2 million sq km and lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere. The peninsula of Indo-China lies on the east and the peninsula of Arabia lies on the west of the mainland India.
  • India lies between 8° N and 37° N latitudes and 68° E and 97° E longitudes. India measures 3,214 km from north to south and 2,933 km from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km and a coastline of 7,516.6 km. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the country is almost same in de­grees i.e. about 30 degrees. Due to vast longitudinal extent, the time difference between the two extreme points in the east and west is of two hours. The 82½° E longitude, which passes through the middle of India, is taken as Indian Standard Meridian. India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories, for a total of 36 state and union territories.
  • India has fairly regular coastline. It does not have many natural harbours. Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.

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  • Q1

    Give the capital of the following states:
    i) Goa
    ii) Jharkhand

    iii) Karnataka


    The capitals are:
    i) Goa- Panaji

    ii) Jharkhand -Ranchi
    iii) Karanataka -Bengaluru

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  • Q2

    Name some of the union territories of India.


    The union territories of India are:
    i) Pondicherry

    ii) Daman and Diu
    iii) Chandigarh
    iv) Dadra & Nagar Haveli
    v) Andaman & Nicobar
    vi) Lakshadweep
    vii) Delhi

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  • Q3

    Name some of the states on the western coast of India.


    The states on the western coast are:
    i) Gujarat
    ii) Maharasthra
    iii) Goa
    iv) Karnataka
    v) Kerala

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  • Q4

    Discuss the locational setting of India.


    India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30’N) passes almost halfway through the country. From south to north, India extends between 8°4' N and 37° 06' N latitudes. From west to east, India extends between 68°7’ E and 97°25’ E longitudes.

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  • Q5

    Why is India said to be a country of vast expanse?


    India has an area of about 3.28 million sq.km. The north–south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km. The east–west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km. The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the coasts and islands present and forms diverse landform.

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