# Population Dynamics

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• Q1

What is the population composition?

Marks:1

Population composition refers to the structure of the population.

• Q2

What would the shape of the population pyramid be, if a country has both high birth rate and death rate?

Marks:5

A country that has high birth rate and high death rate will have a population pyramid that is broad at the base and rapidly narrows towards the top. This is because although a large number of children are born, a large percentage of them die in their infancy, few become adult and very few reach the old age.

Shown here is the population pyramid of Kenya, which has a high birth rate as well as a high death rate.

• Q3

Briefly explain the density of population in India.

Marks:5

The number of people living in one unit area of the surface area is called population density. The average density of population in the world is 45 persons per sq. km. India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world. The average density of population in India is 382 persons per sq. km. according to 2001 census. One of the major fact regarding population density in India is that it has been consistently increasing over the years. In 1901, India’s density was 77 only and it increased to 117 in 1951 and finally it has now reached 382 in 2011. In terms of density there is great variation among the different states in India. Union Territories of Delhi and Chandigarh have the density of 11,320 and 9,258 persons per square kilometers respectively. Whereas, the density in Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram is 17 and 52 person per sqaure kilometer respectively in 2011.

• Q4

Briefly explain the age structure composition of the population of India.

Marks:5

Basically, the population can be divided into three age groups:

1. 0-14 years

2. 15-64 years

3. 65 years and above.

In these age groups, the 15-64 years age group is considered as the working age group and the other two age groups, i.e., 0-14 years and 65+ years are known as dependent age groups or non-working age groups.

The percentage of population in each age group is very much clear from this figure:

So, about 63% of the Indian population is among the working class but about 37% of the population lies in the dependent age groups and this is a very high percentage. If we compare the age composition of Indian population with the other countries, then the scenario will become clearer at global level.

At global level the percentage of working class in India is higher than the low income countries but it is less than the percentage of working class in the middle and high income countries. Thus, it can be said that India falls between low and middle income country categories at global level. So, government has to make efforts to provide health and education facilities to younger section of the population and also to make arrangements to train people who have reached the working age group.

• Q5

India’s population is by and large male dominated. Give reasons in support of this statement.

Marks:5

Sex ratio in India is 940 females per thousand males. Sex ratio in India is lower than many countries of the world and also in comparison to the average sex ratio of the world. Even, if we analyse the sex ratio in different states of India, it becomes clear that the sex ratio above 1000 only prevails in Kerala and Puducherry.

The major reasons responsible for this are:

1. Girl child is killed in the womb or just after their birth in many parts of India. This practice is more common in Rajasthan and Haryana but prevails in the other parts of India, as well.
2. Religious and social beliefs give special preference to male child and thus female child is exploited in many societies in India.
3. Traditionally, male child is preferred over female child.
4. Many women die during pregnancy or delivery of the child.
5. Neglect of girl child in terms of health and education also decreases female population in the country.