Non-Infectious Diseases

Any physical or functional change from the normal state that causes discomfort or disability or impairs the health of a living organism is called a disease.

Disease can be of two types: Communicable or infectious disease and Non-communicable or non-infectious disease.
Non-communicable diseases are caused due to physical agents, chemical agents, nutritional deficiency, ageing, mental illness, allergies, metabolic and genetic impairment etc.

Disease causing physical agents includes injury, heat, cold, radiation etc. while chemical agents like urea or uric acid formed in the body or pollutants, pollens, spores present in the atmosphere affects human health.

Nutritional deficiency diseases occur due to the intake of improper and unbalanced diet, for example Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, Obesity, Scurvy, Night blindness etc.

Many diseases also arise with ageing.For example, cataract, arthritis, oesteoporosis etc.

Mental illness is a psychological disorder in which the behaviour of a person becomes abnormal. Depression and schizophrenia are the examples of mental illness.

Diseases like hay fever, asthma, bronchitis etc. arise due to allergic reactions.Allergy is a hypersensitive reaction of the immune system.

Metabolic disorders are caused due to abnormal metabolic processes in the human body.Diabetes mellitus and goiter are the examples of metabolic disorders.

Genetic diseases are inherited from one generation to another. For example: haemophilia and thalassemia.

Cancer is a fatal disease which is caused due to the uncontrolled and defective growth of the body cells, resulting in the formation of tumours. The causative agents of cancer are collectively known as carcinogens.

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  • Q1

    An example of negative feedback

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Control of blood sugar by insulin

    Explanation:

    It occurs when the response to a given action generates an effect which inhibits that action.

    For example: Control of blood sugar by insulin

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  • Q2

    The chemical messenger secreted by endocrine gland that affects the activities of the body is called

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    hormone.

    Explanation:

    The chemical messenger secreted by the endocrine gland that affects the activities of the body is called a hormone.

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  • Q3

    Symptom of diabetes

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Frequent urination

    Explanation:
    It is  a metaboilc disorder in which body does not produce enough insulin. It is of two types Type I diabetes and Type II diabetes.
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  • Q4

    The secretion in quantity below normal level that is required by the body is called

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    hyposecretion.

    Explanation:

    The secretion in quantity below normal level that is required by the body, is called hyposecretion.

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  • Q5

    Pancreatic hormone which maintains blood glucose level in human body

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    insulin.

    Explanation:

    Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas which maintains the blood glucose level in the human body.

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