Useful and Harmful Fungi

Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophic micro-organisms that may be unicellular as well as multi-cellular.

Fungi have found many applications in various sectors like medicine, agriculture, industry etc. and hence, are economically important micro-organisms.

Antibiotics for infectious diseases are obtained from fungi called moulds. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered, that was produced by a mould (Penicillium notatum). Yeast is used as a supplement to cure vitamin deficiency disease as it is rich in Vitamin B & E.

Enzymes like pectinase, amylase and invertase are synthesised by fungi like Aspergillus.

Fungi can be used in agriculture to increase soil fertility and for preventing the leaching of minerals.

Fungi are utilized in various industries such as brewing, baking, cheese production, chemical and food industry.

Yeast is used as biochemical transforming agents in various food and beverage preparations like wine, beer, bread, cheese etc.

The organic acids like citric acid, itaconic acid etc. and organic solvents like alcohol and acetone are synthesised on large scale from fungi.

The Fungi like Penicillium or Aspergillus are then added to add flavour to the cheese.

Mushroom cultivation involves five major steps namely composting, spawning, casting, cropping and harvesting, preservation
Fungi like Mushrooms are consumed wholly as a food item by man. The most widely consumed mushroom is the Agaricus bisporus or the button mushroom.

Some fungi are parasitic in nature and cause various diseases in plants, animals and humans.

Saprophytic fungi are involved in the spoilage of food items and deterioration of articles like clothes, leather etc.

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  • Q1

    The mode of reproduction in fungi can be______.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    sexual or asexual

    Explanation:

    The mode of reproduction in fungi can be sexual or asexual. For example, yeast performs budding.

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  • Q2

    The tangled mass of hyphae is called____.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    mycelium

    Explanation:

    Each fungal hypha is bounded by a cell wall. The tangled mass of hyphae is called mycelium. 

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  • Q3

    Fungi contain cell wall like plant cells, bu they lack_____.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    chlorophyll

    Explanation:

    Fungi contain cell wall like plant cells, bu they lack chlorophyll. Fungi may be parasitic, saprophytic or symbiotic.   

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  • Q4

    ______are a group of organisms that can grow on moist leather.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Fungi

    Explanation:

    Fungi are a group of organisms that can grow on moist leather, bark of trees, starch or sugary food stuff.The branch of science that deals with the study of fungi is called mycology.

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  • Q5

    Organisms that are extremely small in size and can be only seen under a microscope but not by naked eyes are called ______.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    microorganisms

    Explanation:

    Organisms that are extremely small in size and can be only seen under a microscope, but not by naked eyes are called microorganisms. These organisms can be divided into five categories which include bacteria, virus, algae, protozoa and fungi.

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