Hygiene

Hygiene refers to the conditions and practices which help to sustain a good health and prevent the spread of diseases.

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

The health of an individual is affected by both its social and physical environment.

Disease refers to any physical or functional change from the normal state that causes discomfort or disability or impairs the health of a living organism.

The disease may be acute or chronic depending on the time period for which it lasts.

The disease may be communicable or non-communicable on the basis of transmission. Immediate infectious causes of disease include bacteria, virus, fungus, protozoans and nematodes. Poverty, heredity, poor nourishment and poor public services are the contributory causes of disease.

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens while non-infectious diseases are caused due to internal or non-infectious agents.
Infectious agents can spread through air, water, vectors or sexual contact.

A vector is an organism, which carries disease-causing microorganisms from one host to another; such as a mosquito or tick.

The immune system is a collection of organs, cells and tissues that work together to protect our body from disease caused mostly by pathogens.

An active immune system recruits many cells to the effected tissue to kill off the disease-causing microbes.

Infectious diseases may be prevented by immunization.Immunization is the process of inoculating a person with vaccines or anti-serums to protect the body from the microbial attack of pathogens.

A vaccine is a preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus, or a portion of the pathogen's structure that upon administration stimulates antibody production against the pathogen and generates memory cells.

Memory cells recognise the pathogen quickly on subsequent exposure and effectively control it before symptoms can arise.
BCG Vaccine (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) is used against tuberculosis prepared from a strain of the weakened live bovine tuberculosis bacillus i.e., Mycobacterium bovis

DTP Vaccine provides immunity against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough.

Personal hygiene is required for healthy living and for protection from germs that causes diseases.

Some important personal hygiene practices include washing hands, washing hair, cleaning teeth, cleaning nose etc.

Like personal health, community health is also very important. Activities or programmes that improve the health of the people in a community are organised locally.

Community health services are provided by the municipalities and panchayats. Community health can be maintained if some of the general sanitation practices are followed.

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  • Q1

    Obesity results due to

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Regular intake of fast food

    Explanation:

    Regular intake of fast food and that too in large quantities many lead to obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure etc.

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  • Q2

    The normal level of glucose in the blood is

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    80-120mg/dl

    Explanation:

    The normal level of glucose in the blood is 80-120mg/dl.

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  • Q3

    When the blood glucose level exceeds the normal limit, the person is supposed to be affected by

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Diabetes

    Explanation:

    When the blood glucose level exceeds the normal limit, the person is supposed to be affected by diabetes.

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  • Q4

    Source of energy for living beings is

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Glucose

    Explanation:

    Our body breaks down the food we eat into glucose, which is the source of energy for living beings.

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  • Q5

    The level of glucose in the body is controlled by

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Insulin

    Explanation:

    The level of glucose in the body is controlled by insulin hormone.

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