Nutrition and Deficiency Diseases

Nutrients are substances needed by the body for growth, repair, maintenance and development.

Food is the essential source of nutrients that is ingested or assimilated by the organism for living.

Food can be obtained from a plant source called plant based food or it can be obtained from an animal source and called animal based food. The food energy is measured in a unit called food calorie.    

The essential nutrients required by our body are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.

Carbohydrates and fats provide us energy to do any kind of work. On the basis of molecular size and solubility, carbohydrates can be classified into simple sugar and complex sugar. Monosaccharides are simple sugar, disaccharides and polysaccharides are complex sugar.

Sources of carbohydrates are cereals, sugar, jaggery, noodles and potatoes, while sources of fats are butter, ghee and oils.
On the basis of hydrogen content, fats can be classified into saturated fats and unsaturated fats.

Proteins are nutrient needed by the body for proper growth and development. Sources of protein are milk, egg, pulses, meat etc.
Vitamins needed by our body are vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, D, E and K.

Some of the minerals needed by our body are iron, iodine, phosphorus and calcium etc.

Roughage are the dietary fibres that provide bulk to the food and help in normal bowel function.

Water is also required for several vital activities of the body.

Minerals are also needed in a small quantity for the proper functioning of the body. Table salt, green vegetables and fruits are major sources of minerals. They help in the proper working of the circulatory system and the nervous system. Examples of minerals are calcium, iron, iodine and phosphorous.

Some of the deficiency diseases include: rickets, poor skeleton growth, muscular cramps and delayed nerve impulse transmission, skin diseases, softening of bones, loss of weight, anaemia, dental decay, albinism, skin lesions, retarded growth, goitre, cretinism, etc.    

Diet which contains all essential nutrients in appropriate amounts is called balanced diet.

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  • Q1

    Which of the following is a rich source of vitamin?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Mushrooms

    Explanation:

    Mushrooms are a rich source of vitamin D. They do not belong to the category of plants but; are a type of fungi.

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  • Q2

    Which of the following food component is a rich source of carbohydrate?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Sugarcane

    Explanation:

    Sugarcane is a rich source of carbohydrate. It is a direct source of sugar which is an instant energy source.

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  • Q3

    The diet which contains all the necessary nutrients required for the healthy growth of our body in adequate amount is known as _______.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    balanced diet

    Explanation:

    The diet which contains all the necessary nutrients required for the healthy growth of our body in adequate amount is known as a balanced diet. It is necessary to take a balanced diet in order to remain healthy.

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  • Q4

    ______is the process by which living organisms takes in food and utilise it to grow and become healthy.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Nutrition

    Explanation:

    Nutrition is the process by which living organisms takes in food and utilise it to grow and become healthy. Animals eat food for getting energy and nutrients, whereas plants manufacture food through photosynthesis.

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  • Q5

    _____ works as a building material for all life forms.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Food

    Explanation:

    Food is the essential source of nutrients (like proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals) ingested or assimilated by the organisms for living. It works as the building material for all life forms.

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