Pollination

Pollination is defined as the transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of the same flower or another flower of the same species.
There are three ways of pollination, namely; Autogamy, Geitonogamy and Allogamy.
Autogamy is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower.
Geitonogamy is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of another flower of the same plant.
Allogamy is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of another flower on a different plant.

There are two types of pollination, namely; self- pollination and cross pollination.
Self pollination is facilitated by few adaptive features, like homogamy and cleistogamy.
The adaptive features that facilitate cross pollination in plants are unisexuality, dichogamy, herkogamy, self-sterility and heterostyly.

On the basis of pollinating agents, pollination is classified into Anemophily, Hydrophily and Zoophily.

On the basis of the type of animal involved in the process of pollination, zoophily is further classified into entomophily, ornithophily, chiropterophily, Elephophily.

When pollination is mediated by man it is called artificial pollination. It can be done by emasculation, bagging and sprinkling.

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  • Q1

    Example of ornithophily pollinator is

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    Answer:

    birds.

    Explanation:
    Ornithophily is a strategy evolved by flowers to ensure that their pollination is done by birds. These flowers are typically brightly coloured, often red or orange and produce large quantities of thin, watery nectar and are scentless because most birds do not respond well to smell.
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  • Q2

    With the arrival of pollen on the stigma, the pollen tube enters the

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    Answer:

    ovule.

    Explanation:
    With the arrival of pollen on the stigma, the pollen tube enters the ovule and ruptures. One sperm cell fuses with the egg forming the diploid zygote (Syngamy) while the other sperm cell fuses with the polar nuclei forming the endosperm nucleus. The whole process is called double fertilization.
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  • Q3

    When insects are involved in pollination, it is known as

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    Answer:

    entomophily.

    Explanation:
    In entomophily, insects go to feed on flower expecting a reward (usually nectar, pollen or edible part of the flower) and they unwillingly transport the pollen from one flower to another.
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  • Q4

    When pollination occurs with the help of wind, it is known as

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    Answer:

    anemophily.

    Explanation:
    Anemophilous flowers are usually unscented, have very reduced petals and sepals or lack them altogether and do not produce nectar.
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  • Q5

    Hydrophily pollinator is

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    Answer:

    water.

    Explanation:
    When pollination occurs with the help of water, the water act as hydrophily pollinator. For example, aquatic plants.
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