Derivatives of skin

The structures that have their derivations from the skin are called skin derivatives.

Skin and its derivatives like hair, nails, glands and various receptors form the integumentary system.

Hair is an elastic strand of dead, keratinized cells. It is a thread like structure, which forms the exoskeleton of mammals and provides protection, warmth etc.Hair comprises of follicle, bulb, papilla and shaft.

Nail is a scale like epidermal modification which grows as dead cells from the ends of fingers and toes.Nail is composed of plate, bed,matrix, lunulaand cuticle. Nails protect the fingertips and adjoining soft tissues from injuries.

The sebaceous glands produce an oily substance called sebum that prevents dehydration. Sebum is a metabolic waste that remain after breakdown of fat cells.

Acne, blackhead and pimples are the common problems associated with sebaceous glands.

The sweat glands are simple tubular glands on the dermis that produce sweat.

Mammary glands are modified sweat glands that develop during puberty in females and produce milk during lactation. These are present in both males and females but remain in rudimentary state in males.

Meibomian glands or tarsal glands are modified sebaceous glands, which are found at the edge of eyelids.

Ceruminous glands are present in the lining of outer ear and produce earwax.

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  • Q1

    Name the sensory hairs grown on the cheeks of certain mammals.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Whiskers are the sensory hairs grown on the cheeks of certain mammals.

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  • Q2

    Name the type of muscle responsible for the elevation of hair follicles above the skin.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Arrector pilli muscle is responsible for the elevation of hair follicles above the skin.

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  • Q3

    Name the hormone responsible for ejection of milk during lactation.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Oxytocin is responsible for ejection of milk during lactation.

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  • Q4

    Name the gland which secretes lipid based, oily fluid known as sebum.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Sebaceous gland secretes lipid based, oily fluid known as sebum.

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  • Q5

    Name the outermost and hardest part of nail.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Nail plate is the outermost and hardest part of nail.

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